Archaeology_Lectures - September17,2009...

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September 17, 2009  Lecture 1 : Archaeological Data and Dating Archaeological record: The matrices in which artifacts, ecofact, sites and other human-manufactured features  or results of past human action are found. Example: soil, strata, human craft artifacts. 3 typical elements (stage processes) for archaeological research: Observed material culture: things left behind in a site/place a culture existed Unobserved human/non-human activity: process of the creation of the material things Interpretation of human activity: explain human activity of certain culture Material Evidence: Physical: Artifacts     : any portable object (can be recovered or ppl who created them could moved them  around) whose form has been shaped (manufactured or modified) by way of human activity.  Ex: arrowhead, pottery.  Feature     : Non-portable (can’t be moved around; they can leave marks on the soil of their  presence) material evidence of past human activity. Ex: hearths, storage pits, postholes. o Kelly Excavation Site plan: remains of houses, postholes, fences o Great Pyramid of Giza Ecofact     : Non-artifactual material evidence of human activity. Ex: plants, animals. Is the harvest  on a storage pit that that gets carbonized? Can be subdivided into: o Macrofossils:  visible to the naked eye.  Can be retrieved through flotation (put it on a giant  tank filled w/ water and scoop all the remains floating), or normal excavation procedures.  Ex:  kernel of corn (plant remain) o Microfossils:  They are visible only under high power magnification, 200x or greater, and can  be recover only through flotation. Ex: pollen (Poaceae –grass pollen grains), phytoliths (micro  syllica deposits). Spatial: Activity areas Sites Regions Archaeological Site : Can be defined in a number of ways. Usually consists of a collection of activity areas  containing any of the following:  artifacts, ecofacts, and features.
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Provenience (Provenance):   physical location in 3 dimensional space. Crucial to record where the objects  come from or part of the history is lost. Side level: grid system Regional level: map co-ordinates, settlement features. Ex: roads, towns. Site Formation Processes:  Affected by: Natural artifacts human agencies Natural agencies. Ex: site composition, environment, temperature, disturbance by animals  (taphonomic processes). Finding Archaeological Sites
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This note was uploaded on 04/25/2010 for the course ANTHROPOLO ANT100Y taught by Professor Watts,lehman,danesi,barker during the Spring '10 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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Archaeology_Lectures - September17,2009...

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