Barker_lecture4 - Thursday,March18,2010 Whatissociety...

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ANT100Y1 Section 4 Lecture 4 Thursday, March 18, 2010 What is society? Malinowski’s Functionalism (last week) Institutions: make up society; they come into society and why they exsist and stick  around Malinowski: form of functionalism o Human beings have biological needs  o Cultural satisfies needs via institutions o Institutions create second order needs (cultural) o Culture satisfies needs in these needs in these institutions institutions can include marriage, procreation, that lead to other instutions such as love,  happiness, etc. Radcliffe-Brown’s Functionalism institution x is done for Y institution x has an effect z z is beneficial to society w since x is part of w, x is reproduced institutions may have direct functions for which they were created in theory and address  certain needs in the process of addressing those needs, they have side effects that end up being  beneficial to society and this institution persists so even if an institution is not addressing a need very well, it can survive with society  because it address other kinds of needs M funct. – biological needs R.b funct. – society needs Argument against Both treats institutions in a steady state; homeostatic institutions are only functional in society they treat societies as being bounded:  these theories came out of a context where antrhopol studied village communities; self  reproducing societies and unchanging – that’s why there is so much argument against  these theories
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these assumptions are ethnocentric How are societies held together? There is a general society where social relationships are held together Solidarity Emile Durkheim: two kinds o Mechanical solidarity: the form that pertains to small scale societies; primitive; village where everything is structured and have set values, tasks, labour etc. that is consistenly; certain tasks are shared between members; unchanging o Organic solidarity: modern society; division of labour, specialization of tasks ; held together in a unit through the medaphor of a body; there are certain functions in the body that work together to create it; like oraganic societies, people specialize in certain tasks to create a large scal modern society The state Large scale modern societies Benedict Anderson: an institution like the Church, the university and the modern corporation Ingests and excretes personel It has its own memory and interest in self-preservation, apart from the people that make it up There are still traditional societies that are still evident today (ex. nomadic) however due to the state, the amount of such communities are decreasing and are being shunned to the outskirts of societies
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