lecture 8 Ch6-7 - Chapter 6 A science of manufacturing...

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Objectives, Measures, and Controls I often say that when you can measure what you are speaking about, and express it in numbers, you know something about it; but when you cannot express it in numbers, your knowledge is of a meager and Chapter 6: A science of manufacturing 1 unsatisfactory kind; it may be the beginning of knowledge, but have scarcely, in your thoughts, advanced to the stage of Science, whatever the matter may be. – Lord Kelvin
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Why a Science of Manufacturing? Confusion in Industry: • too many “revolutions”:(MRP,MRPII,JIT,TOC,ERP,…,) • management by buzzword • Nature of buzzword is that of a silver bullet “a single solution for all situations” • There is a lack of reliance on the underlying science of 2 manufacturing Why Science ? • Many applied fields rely on science square4 Medicine – Biology, chemistry, etc square4 Civil Eng – Statics, Dynamics, etc
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Why a Science of Manufacturing? It offers precision Relations like F=m*a, offer a basic relation of physics, offers intuition and facilitates synthesis of complex systems Underlying Sciences may differ but they have the following features in common 3 1. Offer quantitative relationships describing the system behavior 2. Founded on theories for simple systems, around which theories for more complex real-world systems are built 3. They contain intuitive relationships
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Example Product Design Requirements: • New concept involves a 3-KvW motor • running on standard household voltage and wiring (120 volts with a 20 ampere breaker) Can we do it? 4 Answer: No way! P=IV 3000 Watts=(I) (120 volts) = 25 amperes P= Power, I= current, V= voltage
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Factory Design Requirements: • 3000 units per day, • with a lead time of not greater than 10 days, • and with a service level (percent of jobs that finish on time) of at least 90%. 5 Can we do it? Answer: Equivalent formula for factory design ? Who knows?
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Factory Tradeoff Curves 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 (days) One possibility: generate a relationship between the service and lead time 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 74 77 81 85 89 93 97 Lead Time( Service in % 2400 2600 2800 3000
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Systems Analysis Definition: Systems analysis is a structured approach to problem-solving that involves 1. Identification of objectives (what you want to accomplish), measures (for comparing alternatives), and controls (what you can change). 2. Generation of specific alternatives . 7 3. Modeling (some form of abstraction from reality to facilitate comparison of alternatives). 4. Optimization (at least to the extent of ranking alternatives and choosing “best” one). 5. Iteration (going back through the process as new facets arise).
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Goals of a Science of Manufacturing Tools: • descriptive models : simplify complex realities • prescriptive models: help guide the decision making • The resulting descriptive models provide the foundation for prescriptive models used by practitioners in applied fields Terminology: 8 • rationalize buzzwords • recognize commonalities across environments Perspective: Factory physics simply provides the basic relationships among fundamental manufacturing quantities such as: Inventory, TH, CSL, etc
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