6720 Lecture 9_ultrasound imaging

6720 Lecture 9_ultrasound imaging - Lecture IX 1. 2. 3. 4....

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1 PHYS 6720 - Lecture IX 1 Lecture IX Ultrasound Imaging 1. Introduction 2. Acoustic waves 3. Acoustic detection 4. Ultrasound and Doppler imaging PHYS 6720 - Lecture IX 2 IX-1 Introduction Historical development • In 1870s, Francis Galton in England invented an ultrasound whistle to test the upper threshold frequency of human and animals and reported that the limit decreases as man ages • In 1880s, French physicists Pierre Curie and Jacques Curie observed the piezoelectric phenomenon of quartz crystal and other materials that laid foundation for ultrasound transducers • In 1920s and 30s, Sergei Y. Sokolov of Soviet Union, among others, reported detection of flaws metal objects with ultrasonic waves, first through transmission mode and later suggested improvement with a higher frequency (~3MHz) and a reflection mode • In 1945 and later, F.A. Firestone of University of Michigan filed several patents for flaw detection using a “supersonic reflectoscope” 3 IX-1 Introduction Historical development • In 1941 and right after WWII, K.T. Dussik of Austria published a paper on medical use of ultrasound imaging (“On the possibility of using ultrasound waves as a diagnostic aid”) and experimental results with quartz transducers in transmission mode T1-u ltrason icgenerator ,Q1-transm it ter ,Q2-rece iver ,T2-converteramp l if ier ,W – water bath, L - light, P - photographic/ heat-sensitive paper http://www.ob-ultrasound.net/dussikbio.html PHYS 6720 - Lecture IX 4 IX-1 Introduction Historical development • After the rapid development of radar technology through WWII, several research groups in Japan, U.S. and Europe have pursued ultrasound detection equipment and ultrasound imaging devices • In 1958, Ian Donald published the first OBGY clinical paper on using pulse-echo technique in A and B-mode to diagnose a huge, easily removable, ovarian cyst in a woman who had been diagnosed as having inoperable cancer of the stomach • Wide applications of ultrasound in medical diagnosis started in 1960s in obstetrics and gynecology and other specialties when commercial equipment became available • The "First World Congress on Ultrasonic Diagnostics in Medicine" was held in Vienna in 1969 PHYS 6720 - Lecture IX 5 IX-1 Introduction Historical development Publications on ultrasound imaging in OBGY increased from 1 in 1958 to 296 in 1978 PHYS 6720 - Lecture IX 6 IX-1 Introduction Advantage of ultrasound and Doppler imaging • No ionization radiation • Safety concerns include tissue temperature rise at low intensity and additional shock-wave generation under high-frequency and short- pulse (<~ns) conditions • So for diagnostic applications with low intensity and long-pulse (>~ μ s), ultrasound can be used in regular clinics by non-specialist physicians (do need training) • Fast signal acquisition: real-time imaging • Low-cost: an ultrasound imager costs between $30k and $100k
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2 PHYS 6720 - Lecture IX 7 IX-1 Introduction Advantage of ultrasound and Doppler imaging • Compactness: imager can consist of a hand-held probe hooked to a
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This note was uploaded on 04/25/2010 for the course PHYS 6720 taught by Professor Hu during the Spring '10 term at East Carolina University .

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6720 Lecture 9_ultrasound imaging - Lecture IX 1. 2. 3. 4....

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