KidneyExchange145

KidneyExchange145 - Kidney Exchange Ichiro Obara UCLA...

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Kidney Exchange Ichiro Obara UCLA January 7, 2010 Obara (UCLA) Kidney Exchange January 7, 2010 1 / 26
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Kidney Exchange Kidney Exchange Obara (UCLA) Kidney Exchange January 7, 2010 2 / 26
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Kidney Exchange Background Background Shortage of kidney for transplant (about 15000 kidneys are transplanted every year. About 80000 people in the waiting list). Ethical problem with market exchange. Transplants from spouse, parents, and relatives etc are possible. But there are often mismatches. Here is the list of blood type compatibility (There are other issues such as HLA type compatibility). I O A , B , O , AB I A A , AB I B B , AB I AB AB Obara (UCLA) Kidney Exchange January 7, 2010 3 / 26
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Kidney Exchange Background Example Is there any clever way to address this organ shortage problem? Consider two donor-recipient pairs (donor 1, patient 1), (donor 2,patient 2). Recipient 1’s blood type is B and Donor 1’s (say, patient 1’s spouse) blood type is A . Recepient 2’s blood type is A and Donor 2’s blood type is B . Obara (UCLA) Kidney Exchange January 7, 2010 4 / 26
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Kidney Exchange Background Example The blood types do not match for each pair. Their only traditional option would be to be on the waiting list and wait for a cadavar kidney with the right match. Why not exchange kidneys? There is no monetary transaction involved and everyone is happy. Similarly three-way exchanges can save three pairs at the same time. Obara (UCLA) Kidney Exchange January 7, 2010 5 / 26
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Kidney Exchange Background Direct and Indirect Exchange This is an example of direct exchange . Direct Exchange A patient receives a live kidney in exchange for a kidney of the paired donor. A direct exhcange between donor-recipient pairs makes not only themselves happy, but also other patients on the waiting list happy because it reduces the demand pressure on cadavar kidneys. live kidneys are better than cadavar kidneys. Obara (UCLA) Kidney Exchange January 7, 2010 6 / 26
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Kidney Exchange Background Direct and Indirect Exchange Indirect Exchange Exchange between a live kidney and a priority on the waiting list. This is not necessarily making everyone happy as it may increase the demand for cadavar kidneys. Patients who are type O and/or without a donor pair may be disadvantaged. Obara (UCLA) Kidney Exchange January 7, 2010 7 / 26
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Background Potential Problems Clearly there are many advantages in such kidney exchanges. So we like to design a mechanism to facilitate them. But there are potentially many problems to implement such
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This note was uploaded on 04/25/2010 for the course ECON 145 taught by Professor Obara during the Winter '10 term at UCLA.

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KidneyExchange145 - Kidney Exchange Ichiro Obara UCLA...

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