Chapter 14 slides final

Chapter 14 slides final - Chapter14:...

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Chapter 14: Glycolysis, Gluconeogenesis, and the Pentose Phosphate Pathway Glycolysis Feeder pathways Fermentation Gluconeogenesis Pentose phosphate Tumor biology, vitamin B 1 , and SNPs "Beer is living proof that God loves us and wants us to be happy." -
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Early 1900’s saw the conversion of “vital principle” explanations for sugar conversion to CO 2 and H 2 0 to one that involved enzymes, cofactors, pathways, etc. Protein purification Vitamins Enzyme mechanisms Disease Development of drugs Glycolysis Fermentation (anaerobic glucose degradation, ancient)
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Central Importance of Glucose Glucose is an excellent fuel Yields good amount of energy upon oxidation Can be efficiently stored in the polymeric form Many organisms and tissues can meet their energy needs on glucose only Glucose is a versatile biochemical precursor Bacteria can use glucose to build the carbon skeletons of: All the amino acids Membrane lipids Nucleotides in DNA and RNA Cofactors needed for the metabolism
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Four Major Pathways of Glucose Utilization When there’s plenty of excess energy, glucose can be stored in the polymeric form (starch, glycogen) Short-term energy needs are met by oxidation of glucose via glycolysis Pentose phosphate pathway generates NADPH that is used for detoxification, and for the biosynthesis of lipids and nucleotides Structural polysaccharides (e.g. in cell walls of bacteria, fungi, and plants) are derived from glucose
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Three core rxns of glycolysis: glucose to pyruvate; ATP synthesis by high energy cmpds; hydride transfer to make NADH
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Large part of energy remains in pyruvate and is released via citric acid cycle
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Mg +2 dependency Induced fit mechanism driven by glucose binding, stops nonproductive cycling using water as nucleophile Ubiquitous enzyme Isozymes: liver has hexokinase IV vs other hexokinases; same rxn different genes Glucokinase in prokaryotes
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Aldose to ketose Requires active site Glu. How? Hint: C2 H abstraction, enediol intermediate
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His is essential for steps 1 and 4 Glu is essential for steps 2 and 3
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PFK-2 makes 2,6 bisphosphate fructose in different path Committed step in glycolysis Highly regulated enzyme (PFK-1); ATP low, activity goes up; ATP high, inhibition
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Reversible aldol condensation Class I: use Schiff base intermediate; Class II: use zinc ion
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Payoff phase Acyl phosphate, high energy intermediate
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Covalent thiohemiacetal Covalent acyl-enzyme intermediate Phosphorolysis
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This note was uploaded on 04/25/2010 for the course CHEM 142b taught by Professor Perona,j during the Spring '08 term at UCSB.

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Chapter 14 slides final - Chapter14:...

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