ps1_key

ps1_key - Bi8 PROBLEM SET#1 ANSWER KEY Problem 1: Central...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Bi8 PROBLEM SET#1 ANSWER KEY Problem 1: Central Dogma of Biology A) (6 pts) Describe (in words and a diagram) the “Central Dogma of Biology.” Be sure to include the major macromolecule(s) and process(es) involved. DNA Æ RNA Æ protein The process in which DNA is converted into RNA is called transcription. The process in which RNA is converted to protein is called translation. DNA can be replicated to create a new copy of the DNA. The process in which RNA is converted into DNA is called reverse transcription. B) (24 pts) Describe three advantages for the evolution of protein as the major macromolecular constituent of cells. Proteins are composed of amino acids, which have diverse properties, especially when compared to the dNTPs and NTPs which DNA and RNA, respectively, are made of. Amino acids, uniquely, may be polar, nonpolar, or charged. This diversity allows for a large variety of 3-dimensional structures. Another advantage of this diversity is the ability to create powerful catalytic centers, which allows for cellular functions to progress at rates amenable to life. Also, proteins have a much longer half-life than does RNA. Although the ancestral catalysts in cells are ribozymes, which are made of RNA, they are more readily degraded than proteins, which are so stable that specific mechanisms of degradation have arisen in order to degrade proteins before they naturally become nonfunctional. RNA molecules also have more difficulty in binding to hydrophobic molecules, a problem solved by proteins’ hydrophobic residues. Finally, the triplicate code by which RNA is translated into protein is degenerate, meaning that several combinations of three base pairs on the RNA correspond to the same amino acid in the protein. This allows for some “wiggle room” for mutations that may exist in the original
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 04/25/2010 for the course BI 8 taught by Professor Stathopolous during the Winter '08 term at Caltech.

Page1 / 3

ps1_key - Bi8 PROBLEM SET#1 ANSWER KEY Problem 1: Central...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online