Test 4 Study Guide - properties It’s based on Hess’ Law...

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Chapter 9 Lewis Dot symbol : the symbol of an element and one dot for each valence electron in an atom of the element. The number of dots corresponds with the group number. Elements with low ionization energies tend to form cations (usually alkali metals and alkaline earth metals), and elements with high electron affinities tend to form anions (halogens and oxygen). Ionic bond : the electrostatic force that holds ions together in an ionic compound. Lattice energy : the energy required completely separate one mole of a solid ionic compound into gaseous ions. It’s always positive. o Born-Haber Cycle : relates lattice energies of ionic compounds to ionization energies, electron affinities, and other atomic molecular
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Unformatted text preview: properties. It’s based on Hess’ Law. → Covalent bond : a bond in which two electrons are shared by two atoms. → Covalent compounds : are compounds that contain only covalent bonds. → Lone pairs : pairs of valence electrons that are not involved in covalent bond formation. → Lewis structure : a representation of covalent bonding in which shared electron pairs are shown either as lines or as pairs of dots between two atoms, and lone pairs are shown as pairs of dots on individual atoms. → Octet rule : an atom other than hydrogen tends to form bonds until it is surrounded by eight valence electrons....
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