1930's_F_-_End

1930's_F_-_End - 3/3/09 1. Supreme Court Actions...

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3/3/09 1 F. The New Deal Comes Under Attack 1. Supreme Court Actions (1935-1936) • In 1935 the Supreme Court started to strike down several New Deal Acts a. NIRA Declared Unconstitutional • NIRA declared unconstitutional with the case Schechter Poultry Corp v. United States (1935) • The Schechter case specifically struck down the NRA based on the commerce clause of the Constitution saying that it was regulating intrastate commerce and the Federal gov’t can’t do that • To make up for the loss of the NIRA (including the NRA & PWA)… Congress passed… 1. National Labor Relations Act (NLRA) or Wagner Act • Called the Wagner Act after its leading advocate NY Senator Robert Wagner • Supported the right of workers to organize unions and engage in collective bargaining with employers • Employers can’t discriminate against the union members or engage in blacklisting *** The Federal Gov’t is finally supporting unions not management!
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3/3/09 2 2. National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) • Used to enforce the NLRA • Hears testimony of unfair business practices • They have heard over 900,000 unfair labor practices since 1935 with about 40,000 annually now! 3. Fair Labor Standards Act • Banned child labor • Set rules for the employment of workers under 16 and banned hazardous factory work for those under 18 • National minimum wage • National maximum work week (40-44 hours) 2. AAA Declared Unconstitutional • 1936 - Supreme Court ruled that the tax that funded AAA subsidies to farmers was unconstitutional • Congress was regulating through a tax, which they cannot do G. Criticism Towards the New Deal • The New Deal did not provide benefits to all people 1. Minorities a. Women • Many aspects of the New Deal legislation put women at a disadvantage – NRA codes permitted lower wages for women’s work – In relief and job programs, men and boys received strong preference – Jobs went to male “heads of families” unless the men were unable to work – No New Deal provision protected domestic service, the largest female occupation
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3/3/09 3 b. African Americans • Great Depression hit blacks especially hard • By 1933, more than 50% of urban blacks were unemployed • Often the last hired and first fired, they had experienced the highest unemployment rates of any group during the Depression • Hard times sharpened racial prejudice… “No jobs for blacks until every white man has a job.” • NRA codes permitted lower wage scales for blacks – NRA… “Negro Robbed Again” • AAA led to the eviction of thousands of black tenants and sharecroppers • Blacks were not given jobs at professional levels like the whites - kept out of skilled jobs • Received lower pay than whites for the same work • Neither the minimum wage nor Social Security covered those working as farmers or domestic servants… which was about 65% of blacks • Lynchings increased… bills to make lynching a federal crime fell in defeat… even FDR couldn’t “afford” to support
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This note was uploaded on 04/25/2010 for the course HIST 2882 taught by Professor Stark during the Spring '10 term at Oregon Tech.

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1930's_F_-_End - 3/3/09 1. Supreme Court Actions...

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