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IIIIII Examination Paper SEMESTER: SECOND SEMESTER EXAMINATIONS 2006 UNIT: CEB323 TRANSPORT ENGINEERING 1  THEORY 1 DURATION OF EXAMINATION: PERUSAL: 10 MINUTES
WORKING: 3 HOURS EXAMINATION MATERIAL SUPPLIED BY THE UNIVERSITY: EXAMINATION BOOKLETS
GRAPH PAPER MM — TWO (2) PER STUDENT EXAMINATION MATERIAL SUPPLIED BY THE STUDENT: WRITING IMPLEMENTS
CALCULATORS  ANY TYPE INSTRUCTIONS TO STUDENTS: Students are prohibited from having mobile phones or any other device capable of communicating information
(either verbal or written) in their possession during the examination NOTES MAY BE MADE M ON THE EXAMINATION PAPER DURING PERUSAL TIME FOUR (4) QUESTIONS ONLY ARE TO BE ATTEMPTED, OF WHICH QUESTION 1 IS COMPULSORY ALL QUESTIONS ARE OF EQUAL VALUE Queensland University of Technology GUT Gardens Point GUT Kelvin Grove GUT Carseldine GUT 1 Commence each question on a new page in the examination booklets. QUESTION 1 (20 marks) (a) (b) Brieﬂy describe the following items and their interactions: (i) Surface cracking, moisture and pothole formation
(ii) Vehicle speed, ambient temperature and asphalt rutting
(iii) Aggregate shear strength, aggregate stiffness and pavement design (3 marks)
Brieﬂy describe the following:
(i) Repeated Load Triaxial Test
(ii) Dynamic Cone Penetrometer
(iii) Los Angeles Abrasion Test
(3 marks) Given: A threelayered ﬂexible pavement with stabilised base on a clay sub grade.
DTL = 5 x107 ESA
Pavement composition as per CHEV4 computer output. (i) Sketch the cross section of the pavement, describe what materials are being used and
write a concise (ﬁve lines) technical description for each of the material. (2 marks) (ii) To improve the performance of the pavement, the consultant suggested the use of a
SAMI layer. Would you, as the design engineer, approve this? Where would you
apply this layer? Explain your reasoning. (2 marks) (iii) Calculate 3 critical layer strains, check the adequacy of the design and suggest the
possible failure mode (only the ﬁrst life of stabilised base is considered) The design loading for
Asphalt = 1.1 DTL
Stabilised base = 10 DTL
Subgrade= 1.1 DTL The fatigue relationship for Asphalt: N = (45 09mg)5
Stabilised base: N = (440/ pa)12
Subgrade: N = (8511/us)7'14 (8 marks) (iv) Using the design chart below, investigate Whether the above pavement conﬁguration
is acceptable if the base is not stabilised. Why? (2 marks)  Question 1 continued overleaf — CEB323T1.062 contl. ..  Question 1 continued  35* §%%%§§§%ﬁﬁﬁﬁﬁﬁmﬁwﬁﬁﬁgﬁé
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n mmma %u<%zww wm>% 22 0.0N n QdQJ 4{%Oh u mmmhmgqxﬁm {Edd HQQZM m0 >«4233m conﬂ”. CEB323T1062 QUESTION 2 (20 marks) (a) Describe two different barrier types and comment on their uses and limitations. (8 marks) (b) A signalised intersection has the following movement data. Movements are numbered
around the compass in the conventional manner. Movement Starting Phase Terminating Arrival Flow Saturation
Phase (veh/h) Flow (veh/h) 2 A C 875 3600 3 A B 125 1600 4 C B 125 1500 6 C A 375 1650 7 B A 100 400 8 B C 835 3000 Lost time for all movements is 65 and intergreen time Ss.
Practical degree of saturation for all movements is 0.90.
Minimum displayed green time for all movements is 6s. Noteu =y/Q t=g+l, g = uc,y =q/s Respond to the following: (i) (ii) (iii) (1V) (V) (vi) CEB323T1.062 Draw the phase diagram for the phasing scheme set out in the table above.
(2 marks) From the information above calculate trial movement times for each movement
under an initial 605 cycle time. (2 marks) Draw the critical movement search diagram and identify all possible critical
paths. Identify the critical path. Identify whether the initial cycle time is
sufﬁcient. (2 marks) If the initial cycle time is sufﬁcient, reapportion the critical movement times to
suit the cycle time stating your policy. Otherwise, identify a revised cycle time
that is sufﬁcient and recalculate critical movement times accordingly. (2 marks) For your cycle time result from (iv), assign the noncritical movement times.
(2 marks) Calculate the degrees of saturation for all movements and discuss how the
intersection would perform under these conditions.  (2 marks) cont/. .. QUESTION 3 (20 marks) A transportation study for an urban area is needed to evaluate options to deal with travel demand
up to the year 2026. (a) What are the main types of data which needs to be collected to calibrate a 4—step strategic
transport model for the area? (8 marks) (b) How can each of the main type of data be collected?
(4 marks)
(0) What are the main factors which inﬂuence sample size for a home travel survey?
(4 marks)
((1) A trip distribution model has the following form:
Tij : PiAfi.
2A;ij
J
Explain what each term of this equation means?
(4 marks) CEB323T1.062 cont/. .. QUESTION 4 120 marks) (a) Mode choice models rely on three main types of factors. What are those types?
(3 marks) (b) For each of the main factors above What are the characteristics and attributes which are most
commonly used to calibrate mode choice models? (6 marks) (0) What is the main purpose of the trafﬁc assignment step in the 4step transport model?
(4 marks) (d) If a model is calibrated using 2005 data, how can the same model be used to evaluate
transport options for 2026? (4 marks) (e) Freight trip generation and attraction models are usually built using multiple linear regression
equations. What are some of the likely variables used to predict truck trips? (3 marks) CEB323T1.062 cont]. .. QUESTION 5 (20 marks! (a) Using the origin destination data at a single lane, four approach roundabout: To Leg / South East North West
From leg
South  10 210 15
East 11  23 370
North 350 9 ~ 21
West 21 190 27 —
Note that:
—z(r —A)
_ gov gov e C
D=25m,e=4 A=2s, =0.751——vc , A: c , vemax=c———
m, (D ( ) 1__ AVG . 1 _ e—zttf
tfdom=3.37 —1.4184vC — 0.0208D + 0.0000889D2 — 0.395ne + 0.38871“ tc =max{(3.6135 —l.1293vc —0.33905—0.2775nc)rf,1.1tf} Respond to the following, assuming that the circulating stream headways have a Cowan
relationship: (0 (ii) (iii) (M (V) (vi) Draw the entry lane ﬂows on a diagram for the origin destination matrix set out in
the table above. (2 marks) Calculate the ﬂow and other Cowan’s M3 model parameters of the circulating
stream past the south and east approaches only. (2 marks) Calculate the critical gap and followon time on each entry lane, on the south and
east approaches only. (2 marks) Calculate the theoretical capacity on each entry lane, on the south and east
approaches only. (2 marks) Calculate the degree of saturation on each entry lane, on the south and east
approaches only. (2 marks) Discuss Whether the south and east approaches on the roundabout can perform
acceptably under the speciﬁed conditions. (2 marks)  Question 5 continued overleaf — CEB323T1.062 cont]. ..  Question 5 continued  (b) The probability that exactly x vehicles arrive during a time interval of t seconds at a trafﬁc
ﬂow rate of v veh/s can be estimated using the Possion Distribution as follows: e—vt (Vt)x 1900 = 
.X. where the mean number of arrivals during time interval, 2‘, is equal to vt. Using this
distribution of arrivals as a basis: (i) Derive the negative exponential headway distribution in its cumulative form.
(3 marks) (ii) Using the graph paper provided draw the negative exponential headway distribution
in cumulative form, to a maximum headway of 25s, for a ﬂow rate of 0.2veh/s. (3 marks) (iii) Identify which portion of this distribution is useful for a critical gap of 6s.
(2 marks) CEB323T1.062 cont/H. QUESTION 6 (20 marks) (a) During the morning peak hour a two lane section of motorway upstream of a merge area
experiences a trafﬁc ﬂow rate of 3,200veh/h. A further 1,400veh/h enters the motorway at
the onramp, which is an added lane, thus a three lane section exists downstream of the
merge area. The motorway is on rolling terrain (ET = 3.0) and has an estimated free ﬂow
speed of 95km/h. The peak hour factor is 0.93. The population factor is 1.0. Of all trafﬁc
trucks and buses constitute 12 percent and there are no recreational vehicles. =—————————————' :——.———_——..————'D:_
f’” 1+PT(ET—1)+PR(ER—1)’v” PHFxNfofoP’ S With respect to this chart from the Highway Capacity Manual (2000) respond to the
following: (i) Explain the signiﬁcance of trafﬁc density in motorway level of service analysis.
(2 marks) (ii) Determine the density and level of service on the mainline segment upstream of the
merge area. (3 marks) (iii) Determine the density and level of service on the mainline segment downstream of
the merge area. (3 marks) (iv) Using your analysis results qualify the operation of the motorway upstream and
downstream of the merge area during the morning peak hour. (You do not need to
qualify the operation within the merge area itself.) (2 marks)  Question 6 continued overleaf — CEB323T1.062 contl. .. 10  Question 6 continued  (b) Referring to the sketch below of an unsignalised T junction, respond to the following
questions in a table in your workbook. (145) 1 1 ——’ Legend 12 Movement number
(xxx) Movement flow (veh/h) «— 5 (130) 17 F i [—‘4 (125)
1 3 (80) (140) The following table provides guidance on each movement’s rank and conﬂicting movement/s:
Movement Rank Conﬂicting Movement 1 2 5, (4) 3 2 5, (4) 4 1 NA 5 1 NA 11 3 3, (1) 12 3 5, 4, 3, (1) (*) = baulking (i) Using Table 13.12 below select the appropriate. critical gap and followon time
for each movement. (2 marks)  Question 6 continued overleaf — CEB323T1.062 cont/. .. 11 — Question 6 continued  (ii) Determine the capacity and degree of saturation for each movement assuming
50% baulking Where baulking occurs.
(4 marks)
(iii) Calculate the capacity and degree of saturation for each approach lane.
(3 marks)
(iv) In words, qualify the unsignalised intersection’s operating performance.
(1 mark) Movement , Diagram ‘ Description Left Hand Tum W Not interfering with A ”a
"“'( DEB‘ﬁ‘UEE “"( RequiringAto stow (311)3st = Two ianei one way
Three lane / one way
Four'laneri one way
Two tame! two way
Four iane / two way
Six lane 1 two way Right Hand Tum from Across 1 iane
major road ‘ ' " Across 2 lanes
Across 3 tanes Right Hand Tum from Not interfering with A 14—40 sec
minor road , . One way 3 sec Two lane 1 two way :3 sec
Four Sane 1‘ two way ‘ 8 sec
Six tame ltwo way Acceéeration Lane Note: rm = Critical acceptance gap) {/9 2 follow up headway Tabie 13,12 Gap Acceptance Time END OF PAPER CEB323T1.062 ...
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