chapter1 - Chapter 1 Learning objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6....

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Chapter 1 Learning objectives: 1. Identify vocabulary to be used in the area of thermodynamics 2. Review dimension and units 3. Closed and open systems 4. Introduce important concepts: state, properties, process, cycle, energy, equilibrium 5. Measurement of properties pressure, density, temperature 6. Problem solving techniques
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Thermodynamics : A science which deals with heat and work and properties of substances which are affected by heat and work. We study the conservation of energy as a quantity We determine the quality of the energy We develop an understanding of properties of substances System : All thermodynamic analyses begin with a choice of a system by selecting a boundary. “A system is any region in space bounded by a surface within which attention is focused for study” combust or compress or ai r exhau st turbin e Boundary (imaginary surface) Syste m Environment/surroundin gs Introduction
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Closed system : A fixed quantity of matter (mass) which is under study. A system for which no mass crosses the system boundary (as time progresses). Also called control mass . Boundary may move to contain fixed amount of matter. wor k hea t Initial state Final state * Note that heat and work can cross closed system boundaries. Isolated system: A special closed system which has no interactions with The surroundings. Closed System
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Open system: A fixed region of space through which mass and energy may flow. Key distinction between open and closed system& mass crosses boundary in open systems. Also known as control volume . Low pressure fluid High pressure fluid compress or Open system control volume fixed boundary Open system control volume with moving boundary Combustion products Open System
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Steam power plant Boiler Condenser pum p Power turbin e High temp source Low temp sink Boundary of closed system, no mass crosses Fixed control volume open system Example Systems
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Boiler Cold fluid: “liquid” Hot fluid: “steam” Heat transfer Heat transfer Heat Work transfer Heat & work transfers are allowed. Mass transfer not allowed. Example Systems Boiler Condens er
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Properties : Macroscopic characteristics including such things as temperature, pressure, density, velocity, position (elevation), volume, energy, etc. which can be assigned a numerical value without a knowledge of the history of the system. State : The condition of a system as described by its properties. When a sufficient set of property values are known, the state of the system is known. Example: water (what constitutes a sufficient set of properties?) H2 O H2 O liquid vapo r T1= 50 ºC (121ºF) P1= 1 atm T2= -20 ºC P2= 1 atm T3= 100 ºC P3= 1 atm Properties H2O is a liquid. H2O is a solid. Here H2O could be liquid, vapor, or a combination of both.
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H2 O H2 O liquid vapo r T1= 50 ºC (121ºF) P1= 1 atm Experience tells us that H2O is liquid.
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This note was uploaded on 04/26/2010 for the course MAE 204 taught by Professor Errington during the Spring '08 term at SUNY Buffalo.

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chapter1 - Chapter 1 Learning objectives: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6....

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