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# chapter1 - Chapter 1 Learning objectives 1 2 3 4 5 6...

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Chapter 1 Learning objectives: 1. Identify vocabulary to be used in the area of thermodynamics 2. Review dimension and units 3. Closed and open systems 4. Introduce important concepts: state, properties, process, cycle, energy, equilibrium 5. Measurement of properties pressure, density, temperature 6. Problem solving techniques

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Thermodynamics : A science which deals with heat and work and properties of substances which are affected by heat and work. We study the conservation of energy as a quantity We determine the quality of the energy We develop an understanding of properties of substances System : All thermodynamic analyses begin with a choice of a system by selecting a boundary. “A system is any region in space bounded by a surface within which attention is focused for study” combust or compress or ai r exhau st turbin e Boundary (imaginary surface) Syste m Environment/surroundin gs Introduction
Closed system : A fixed quantity of matter (mass) which is under study. A system for which no mass crosses the system boundary (as time progresses). Also called control mass . Boundary may move to contain fixed amount of matter. wor k hea t Initial state Final state * Note that heat and work can cross closed system boundaries. Isolated system: A special closed system which has no interactions with The surroundings. Closed System

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Open system: A fixed region of space through which mass and energy may flow. Key distinction between open and closed system& mass crosses boundary in open systems. Also known as control volume . Low pressure fluid High pressure fluid compress or Open system control volume fixed boundary Open system control volume with moving boundary Combustion products Open System
Steam power plant Boiler Condenser pum p Power turbin e High temp source Low temp sink Boundary of closed system, no mass crosses Fixed control volume open system Example Systems

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Boiler Cold fluid: “liquid” Hot fluid: “steam” Heat transfer Heat transfer Heat Work transfer Heat & work transfers are allowed. Mass transfer not allowed. Example Systems Boiler Condens er
Properties : Macroscopic characteristics including such things as temperature, pressure, density, velocity, position (elevation), volume, energy, etc. which can be assigned a numerical value without a knowledge of the history of the system. State : The condition of a system as described by its properties. When a sufficient set of property values are known, the state of the system is known. Example: water (what constitutes a sufficient set of properties?) H2 O H2 O liquid vapo r T1= 50 ºC (121ºF) P1= 1 atm T2= -20 ºC P2= 1 atm T3= 100 ºC P3= 1 atm Properties H2O is a liquid. H2O is a solid. Here H2O could be liquid, vapor, or a combination of both.

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H2 O H2 O liquid vapo r T1= 50 ºC (121ºF) P1= 1 atm Experience tells us that H2O is liquid.
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chapter1 - Chapter 1 Learning objectives 1 2 3 4 5 6...

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