Chap-03 Underlying Technology - Chapter 3 Underlying...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 3 Underlying Technology Objectives Upon completion you will be able to: • Understand the different versions of wired Ethernet • Understand wireless Ethernet • Understand the types of point-to-point WANs • Understand the types of switched WANs, especially ATM • Differentiate between repeaters, bridges, routers, and hubs TCP/IP Protocol Suite 1 Figure 3.1 Internet model TCP/IP Protocol Suite 2 3.1 Local Area Networks A local area network (LAN) is a data communication system that allows local a number of independent devices to communicate directly with each other in a limited geographic area such as a single department, a single building, or a campus. A large organization may need several connected LANs.The most popular LANs are Ethernet and wireless LANs. We briefly review these technologies in this section. The topics discussed in this section include: The Wired LANs: Ethernet Wired Wireless LANs: IEEE 802.11 Wireless TCP/IP Protocol Suite 3 Figure 3.2 CSMA/CD TCP/IP Protocol Suite 4 Figure 3.3 Ethernet layers TCP/IP Protocol Suite 5 Figure 3.4 Ethernet frame TCP/IP Protocol Suite 6 Figure 3.5 Ethernet implementations TCP/IP Protocol Suite 7 Figure 3.6 Fast Ethernet implementations TCP/IP Protocol Suite 8 Figure 3.7 Gigabit Ethernet implementations TCP/IP Protocol Suite 9 Figure 3.8 BSSs TCP/IP Protocol Suite 10 Figure 3.9 ESS TCP/IP Protocol Suite 11 Figure 3.10 Physical layer TCP/IP Protocol Suite 12 Figure 3.11 FHSS TCP/IP Protocol Suite 13 Figure 3.12 DSSS TCP/IP Protocol Suite 14 Figure 3.13 MAC layers in IEEE 802.11 standard TCP/IP Protocol Suite 15 Figure 3.14 CSMA/CA TCP/IP Protocol Suite 16 Figure 3.15 Frame TCP/IP Protocol Suite 17 Table 3.1 Addresses in IEEE 802.11 Table Addresses TCP/IP Protocol Suite 18 3.2 Point-to-Point WANs A second type of network we encounter in the Internet is the point-topoint wide area network. A point-to-point WAN connects two remote point point-to-point devices using a line available from a public network such as a telephone network. We discuss the physical and data link layers of these technologies here.. technologies The topics discussed in this section include: Physical Layer Data Link Layer TCP/IP Protocol Suite 19 Figure 3.16 56K modem TCP/IP Protocol Suite 20 Note: ADSL is an asymmetric communication technology designed for residential users; it is not suitable for businesses. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 21 Figure 3.17 Bandwidth division TCP/IP Protocol Suite 22 Figure 3.18 ADSL and DSLAM TCP/IP Protocol Suite 23 Figure 3.19 Cable bandwidth TCP/IP Protocol Suite 24 Figure 3.20 Cable modem configurations TCP/IP Protocol Suite 25 Table 3.2 T line rates Table line TCP/IP Protocol Suite 26 Table 3.3 SONET rates Table SONET TCP/IP Protocol Suite 27 Figure 3.21 PPP frame TCP/IP Protocol Suite 28 3.3 Switched WANs The backbone networks in the Internet are usually switched WANs. A The switched WAN is a wide area network that covers a large area (a state or switched a country) and provides access at several points to the users. Inside the network, there is a mesh of point-to-point networks that connects switches. The switches, multiple port connectors, allow the connection of several inputs and outputs. The topics discussed in this section include: The X.25 Frame Relay ATM TCP/IP Protocol Suite 29 Figure 3.22 Frame Relay network TCP/IP Protocol Suite 30 Note: A cell network uses the cell as the basic cell unit of data exchange. A cell is defined as a small, fixed-size block of information. small, TCP/IP Protocol Suite 31 Figure 3.23 ATM multiplexing TCP/IP Protocol Suite 32 Figure 3.24 Architecture of an ATM network TCP/IP Protocol Suite 33 Figure 3.25 Virtual circuits TCP/IP Protocol Suite 34 Note: Note that a virtual connection is defined by Note a pair of numbers: the VPI and the VCI. VPI VCI TCP/IP Protocol Suite 35 Figure 3.26 An ATM cell TCP/IP Protocol Suite 36 Figure 3.27 ATM layers TCP/IP Protocol Suite 37 Note: The IP protocol uses the AAL5 sublayer. The AAL5 TCP/IP Protocol Suite 38 Note: We will discuss IP over ATM in Chapter 23. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 39 3.4 Connecting Devices LANs or WANs do not normally operate in isolation. They are connected LANs to one another or to the Internet. To connect LANs or WANs, we use connecting devices. Connecting devices can operate in different layers of connecting Connecting the Internet model. We discuss three kinds of connecting devices: repeaters (or hubs), bridges (or two-layer switches), and routers (or repeaters bridges three-layer switches). Repeaters and hubs operate in the first layer of the three-layer ). Internet model. Bridges and two-layer switches operate in the first two layers. Routers and three-layer switches operate in the first three layers layers. The topics discussed in this section include: Repeaters Hubs Bridges Router TCP/IP Protocol Suite 40 Figure 3.28 Connecting devices TCP/IP Protocol Suite 41 Figure 3.29 Repeater TCP/IP Protocol Suite 42 Note: A repeater connects segments of a LAN. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 43 Note: A repeater forwards every bit; repeater it has no filtering capability. it TCP/IP Protocol Suite 44 Note: A repeater is a regenerator, not an amplifier. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 45 Figure 3.30 Function of a repeater TCP/IP Protocol Suite 46 Note: A bridge has a table used in filtering decisions. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 47 Figure 3.31 Bridge TCP/IP Protocol Suite 48 Note: A bridge does not change the physical (MAC) addresses in a frame. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 49 Figure 3.32 Learning bridge TCP/IP Protocol Suite 50 Note: A router is a three-layer (physical, data link, and network) device. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 51 Note: A repeater or a bridge connects segments of repeater a LAN. LAN. A router connects independent LANs or router WANs to create an internetwork (internet). WANs TCP/IP Protocol Suite 52 Figure 3.33 Routing example TCP/IP Protocol Suite 53 Note: A router changes the physical addresses in a packet. TCP/IP Protocol Suite 54 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/26/2010 for the course CSE CS501 taught by Professor Dmathur during the Winter '10 term at National Institute of Technology, Calicut.

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