10 study guide - Chapter 10 Essentials of Virology Study...

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Chapter 10 Essentials of Virology Study Guide Key Figures Fig 10.1, 10.3, 10.6, 10.8, 10.9, 10.10, 10.11, 10.15, 10.16, 10.22, 10.23, 10.24, 10.27, 10.28 Table 10.2, All Tables and Figures from Lecture Notes not listed above Vocabulary - strand RNA virus + strand RNA virus assembly attachment bacteriophage capsid circular permutation DNA viruses early proteins eclipse period env enveloped virus gag induction integrase integrase late proteins latent infection lysogeny naked virus neuraminidase penetration plaque pol prions prophage provirus release restriction reverse transcriptase reverse transcriptase RNA replicase RNA viruses segmented viruses synthesis temperate phage transformation transmissible spongiform encephalopathies viriods virion virulent phage tropism Key Concepts 1) What does the term virus mean? How were viruses first discovered? Can you see viruses on a light microscope? Which virus has been chemically synthesized in lab? Virus : genetic elements that cannot replicate independently of a living cell aka host cell; obligate intracellular parasite that rely on entering a suitable living cell to carry out their replication cycle. They do posses their own genetic info but use host ribosome’s and genetic machinery!!! Viruses couldn’t be properly characterized until the invention of the electron microscope (20 th century) 2) Draw a virion, labeling the capsid, nucleic acid, envelope. What function do the enzymes that may be found in or on the viral particle generally serve? Why is it important that those enzymes are in the virion (pre-made) rather than just genes for them in the viral genome? Where does the viral envelope come from? Do all viruses have an envelope? Virion : extracellular form of virus made up of a nucleic acid (DNA/RNA) and capsid (protein coat made up of repeating units called capsomers ; capsid surronds the genome of virus or nucleic acid). The virion is the structure by which the virus genome moves from the cell in which it was produced to another cell. Once in the new cell, the intracellular state begins and the virus replicates. Capsomer : subunit of capsid
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Enzymes play a role during the infection and replication processes -lysosyme (in phages): breaks peptidoglycan. Beginning: makes a small hole in the bacterial cell wall allowing virus to enter. Later: It is again used to lyse the cell and release virions. -reverse transcriptase: for virus specific RNA; DNA polymerase that transcribes RNA DNA -Neuramidase: surface proteins required for exit from host cell. It cleaves glycosidic bond in glycoprotein’s and glycolipids of animal cell connective tissue. Not all have enzymes but they some do to produce virions Not all have an envelope (layers around the nucleocapsid; phospholipid envelope they get from host’s plasma membrane) some are naked. Many are envelope which mostly infect animal cells. 3)
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10 study guide - Chapter 10 Essentials of Virology Study...

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