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Unformatted text preview: Other Types of Dementia Vascular Dementia Picks Disease Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome Huntingtons Disease P sychiatric disorders are characterized by changes in a persons thoughts, mood, or behaviors that preclude ordinary functioning in one or more spheres of life. Throughout the course of history, persons in the healing professions have tried to uncover the causes and find ef- fective treatments for diseases that alter the way in which people experience the world and behave in it. Over the centuries, the pendulum has swung between those practi- tioners who espouse the view that mental disease arises from inadequate interpersonal relationships and those who espouse the view that mental disease arises from alter- ations in brain structure or activity. In the late 20th century, and now in the early years of the 21st century, the con- versation between these two apparently divergent philoso- phies continues, perhaps to conclude with a new synthesis of nurture versus nature and therefore new and effective therapies for those with mental illness. The purpose of this chapter is to review the evolution in understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of mental illness, to relate the anatomy of the brain and its integrated regional functions to the causes, manifestations, and treat- ment of selected thought, mood, and cognitive disorders. Evolution in Understanding of Mental Illness After completing this section of the chapter, you should be able to meet the following objectives: Define the terms biologic psychiatry and psychosocial psy- chiatry and compare them in terms of their definitions of the origins of mental disease EVOLUTION IN UNDERSTANDING OF MENTAL ILLNESS Historical Perspectives Treatment of Mental Illness The Role of Heredity in Mental Illness ANATOMIC AND NEUROCHEMICAL BASIS OF BEHAVIOR Behavioral Anatomy of the Brain Cerebral Cortical Structures The Limbic System Physiology of Perception, Thought, and Memory Learning and Memory Disorders of Perception Hallucinations Delusions Role of Neuromediators Emergence of Psychotropic Medications Neuroimaging DISORDERS OF THOUGHT AND VOLITION Schizophrenia Manifestations Neurophysiology of Symptoms Diagnostic Criteria Treatment DISORDERS OF MOOD Depression Manifestations Neurophysiology of Symptoms Diagnostic Criteria Treatment ANXIETY DISORDERS Panic Disorder Generalized Anxiety Disorder Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder Social Anxiety Disorder DISORDERS OF MEMORY AND COGNITION: DEMENTIAS Alzheimers Disease Pathophysiology Manifestations Diagnosis and Treatment 1265 C H A P T E R 53 Disorders of Thought, Mood, and Memory Sandra Kawczynski Pasch Describe the changes in the treatment of mental illness over the past three centuries Explain the role that heredity plays in the epidemiology and development of mental illness HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES Psychiatry was not an organized specialty before the end of the 18th century, but mental disorders are as old as the...
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