Fall09_Week12%20Summary - MUS 302L Week 12 Summary The End...

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Unformatted text preview: MUS 302L Week 12 Summary The End of an Era Program Music and Nationalism Symphonic Poem Berliozs experiments with a program symphony are picked up by Liszt, who pioneers the Symphonic Poem in the mid 1800s: Orchestral work, usually in one movement (though often several sections) Relatively free musical form, with a (more-or-less-speciFc) program (examples: Dance of Death; Romeo and Juliet; Peter and the Wolf) Musical themes within a symphonic poem are identiFed with speciFc elements of the story/picture that the program is meant to evoke -- identiFcation is sometimes made by the composer, often by audiences and critics The Symphonic Poem (also called by other names, such as Tone Poem ) becomes one of the most popular genres in the last half of the 1800s; composers still write in this genre today Timeline 2008 1400 1600 1720 1800 1900 800 Middle Ages Baroque Classical Renaissance 1800 1900 Beethoven & Rossini Schubert Schumann Chopin Berlioz Liszt as virtuoso 1830 Weber Verdi Wagner 1860 Foster Gottschalk Sousa Minstrelsy Smetana Liszts Symphonic Poems Musorgski Program Music and Nationalism In the mid-1800s, concern with national identity (both political and cultural) becomes increasingly important as European nation-states begin to take their current shape Many German-speaking musicians focus on solidifying the notion of a great Austro-German heritage; Italian composers cement their focus on Italian opera; similar efforts in France Musicians outside the French / Italian / German cultural sphere make an effort to establish a separate, distinct national sound for their cultures/nations Use of regional languages (Czech, Norwegian, Russian, etc) for songs and musical theater Use of folk melodies that use different rhythms and/or scales than mainstream European tradition Use of program music that refers specically to regional stories, historical events, or geographic landmarks Smetana: The Moldau (1874) Bedrich Smetana (1824-1884) tried to establish a new musical tradition for the new state of Bohemia (now part of the Czech republic) The Moldau comes from a series of six symphonic poems ( My Country) based on Bohemian images; the Moldau is the principal river of Bohemia Opening features two Futes to evoke the two sources of the Moldau; there is then a buildup to the principal theme, symbolizing the river River theme alternates with contrasting ideas, each representing a typical riverside scene; the River theme returns alternating with these scenes, growing in the orchestra as the river grows downstream After the nal scene (a great fortress, symbolizing Bohemian history and independence), the river theme dissolves as the river heads away toward the sea Very evocative -- BUT: without this program, would you have known that this music is about a river? Would the piece still work?...
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Fall09_Week12%20Summary - MUS 302L Week 12 Summary The End...

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