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Exam 3 - Exam 3 Study guide Know PowerPoints Language and...

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Exam 3: Study guide Know PowerPoint’s!!!! Language and the brain: The outer brain includes two hemispheres: Left and right The brain also has the frontal lobe, parietal lobe, occipital lobe and temporal lobe in each hemisphere. Corpus Callosum : A fibrous network that connects the two hemispheres. Contra- laterality: The right brain controls the left- side of the body. The left-brain controls the right side of the body. Experiment- monkeys were trained to respond with their hands to a flashlight like source. Corpus callosum was severed. Result: when a light was flashed to the left eye, only the left hand moved. Language is left- lateralized: (Evidence know all 5) 1) Greek Hippocratic physicians noticed loss of the language faculty with the paralysis of the right side of the body. 2) For some disease, it may be necessary to remove one hemisphere of the brain. a. When the right hemisphere is removed, patients retain linguistic ability, but general intelligence and other cognitive functions might be impaired. b. When the left hemisphere is removed severe language loss.
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3) Split brain patients (Corpus Callosum is severed) a. Was used for a cure of epilepsy b. When an apple is placed in the left hand of such a person can use it appropriately but cannot name it. c. When it is placed in the right hand, the person can use it and name it. 4) Dichotic Listening Tasks a. Words like curl and girl are presented to each eat simultaneous. The one presented to the right eat is usually the one identified. 5) Positron Emission Tomography- (PET) scans were used to see which part of the brain were used during language use –result –(Different tasks had different cortical areas), However, all of it was in the left hemisphere of the brain. **Note** Not always true for left- handed people and women. Modularity: The brain is modular, i.e. Specific areas of the brain are meant for specific functions. (This is not completely true but a good first approximation). Test of modularity: -Look for damage to specific parts of the brain and consequent effects. -Experiments studying the neural activation during specific tasks (EEG- ElectroEncephaloGraphy, MEG- MagnetoEncephaloGraphy, PET scans, MRI…) - Experiments that temporarily stop the functioning of parts of the brain (TMS- Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation). SLI: (Independence of intelligence and language ability) -Language is a functionally separate module of the brain. -Language and general intelligence are separate issues. -Language is also different from singing -Specific Language Impairment (SLI) – only language capabilities are impaired or specific aspects of their language competence could be affected. -Children with SLI could have normal intelligence -The opposite cases are some people who have phenomenal language capacity but are otherwise mentally handicapped.
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