Tech_Serv_Lab_Capabilities Baker

Tech_Serv_Lab_Capabilities Baker - Baker Oil Tools...

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Unformatted text preview: Baker Oil Tools Technical Services Laboratory Capabilities Houston, Texas Lafayette, Louisiana Aberdeen Scotland Sand Control Systems Baker Oil Tools/Division of Baker Hughes Technical Services Laboratory Capabilities Baker Oil Tools Sand Control Systems Baker Oil Tools/Division of Baker Hughes With laboratories located in Houston Texas, Lafayette Louisiana, and Aberdeen Scotland, Baker Oil Tools Sand Control Technical Services Laboratory provides support for worldwide sand control operations, and testing required for product line development. We are able to provide a variety of services that help to optimize the completion process. In addition to routine testing capabilities, the Houston Lab also has advanced analytical capabilities and is set up to perform screen plugging evaluations in a timely fashion. Sand Analysis Sieve analysis Sonic sifters are available in all Technical Services Laboratories for formation grain size analysis. This technique is used to determine sand size distribution and to select gravel pack size requirements. Sieve analysis may also be used to determine the degree of filtration required for the completion fluids, and it may be used to differentiate between formation sand and gravel pack sand. A portion of each sample is rinsed with 2% potassium chloride to inhibit the swelling of the clays, followed by acetone and xylene to extract any oil. The sample is then oven dried and split to a testing quantity and sieved to determine the grain size distribution and median grain size (D50). Research has determined that effective sand control is achieved when the median grain size (D50) of the recommended gravel is no larger than six times the median grain size of the formation sand. Based on this theory, a recommendation for gravel size and screen gauge can be made to control the formation sand of the well. A minimum of 5 grams of sample is required. Technical Services Laboratory Capabilities 2 Malvern Particle Size Analyzer For rapid particle size distribution evaluation, laser particle size analyzers are available. In addition to formation characterization, this device may be used for determining the size of particulate in oil and water based fluids with a range in size from 0.05 to 550 microns. Acid solubility Tests are performed to determine the solubility of formation sand, gravel pack sand, or unknown solid samples in various acids. The sample is exposed to acid for one hour at room temperature or in a water bath at 150°F. Solubility of the formation material in 15% HCl and 12% HCl/3% HF are usually the routine concentrations used for this analysis. This procedure provides quick, but limited, results. Solubility indicates the content of clays, carbonates, feldspars, and iron oxides in the sample. A minimum of 2 grams of sample per acid to be tested is required. Capillary Suction Time (CST) Capillary Suction Time Tests are used to determine fluid compatibility with formation samples. The CST test measures filtration rates on a sized filter paper using spaced electrode rings that activate a timer. The timer initiates when the fluid filtrate contacts the inner electrode ring and stops when the filtrate contacts the outer ring. The timer records the time in seconds for the filtrate to travel from the first electrode to the second. Long relative travel times indicate a damaging fluid because clays and fines are dispersed and possibly swelled, forming a filter cake that limits flow of the fluid onto the filter paper. A minimum of 25 grams of formation sample per fluid to be tested is required. Technical Services Laboratory Capabilities 3 Oil Analysis Emulsion tests It is often necessary to determine the compatibility of fluid introduced into the formation with the formation fluids. Equal amounts of the test fluid and formation fluid are mixed and heated to the reservoir temperature. Characteristics such as breakout time, wettability, interfacial layer distinctness, water and oil quality are observed at set intervals. This test is very useful in selecting the proper surfactant for the treating fluids. A minimum of 250 mls of formation fluid per test is required. Additional Oil Testing Crude oil evaluations also provide information about the compatibility of the crude oil with any fluid systems that will come in contact with it. The following parameters are determined in this analysis: API gravity measured with a hydrometer, percent solids and water in the sample, and the weight percent of paraffin and asphaltene in the sample. It is advisable that an analysis be performed to determine the sludging tendency of the crude before the well is completed if possible (ref. SPE 14818). A minimum of 1 liter of sample is required. Analytical Evaluations Formation water analysis A good understanding of the ions dissolved in the formation water is an important step to preventing formation damage. Water analysis provides a breakdown of the dissolved and solid mineral components in a water sample, such as sodium, potassium, calcium, bicarbonate, carbonate, sulfate, etc. Testing is performed according to API water analysis standards. Scaling tendencies can also be predicted. A minimum of 1 liter of formation water is required. Technical Services Laboratory Capabilities 4 X-Ray Diffraction X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) is used for whole rock mineral identification. This technique allows quantitative identification of the amount and type of clay minerals present. Accurate understanding of the mineralogy of a formation helps to prevent treating the formation with incompatible fluids, and provides information necessary to accurately assess the hydratability of exposed shales. X-Ray Flourescence X-Ray Flourescence (XRF) can provide elemental analysis of both solids and liquids. It can therefore be used in conjunction with XRD to assist in the identification of unknown solids, as well providing quantitative analysis of solids. In addition, this equipment can be used for quality control of products, analysis of crude oil to identify potential emulsion problems, and analysis of formation water to quantify scaling tendencies. Optical Microscope Optical microscopes are used for a “quick look” qualitative evaluation of unknown soilds. In addition, they are used as an important part of quality assurance on gravel pack sands and proppants. Scanning Electron Microscope The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) helps to further identify position and type of minerals in localized area of the rock. Indicates type of clays present as well as whether they are pore filling, pore bridging or pore lining. Technical Services Laboratory Capabilities 5 Viscosity Measurement Fann 35 Fann 35 Rheometers are available for rapid viscosity measurements while preparing and evaluating gelled fluid formulations. The device allows determination n’ and K’ and apparent viscosity at various shear rates at temperatures up to 200o F. Brookfield Viscometer The Brookfield PVS Rheometer is a dynamic coaxial cylinder, controlled shear rate rheometer allowing quick and easy viscosity measurements under pressure at temperatures where sample boil-off is a problem. The PVS can be used to simulate process conditions for small fluid samples in a laboratory benchtop environment. Applications include chemical compounds containing volatile materials, oil industry, drilling muds and fracturing fluids, processed foods, polymers and paints. Any test sample requiring absolute viscosity measurement under totally enclosed conditions is a viable candidate. This device is used to prepare and evaluate frac fluid formulations. Determine n’ and K’ and apparent viscosity at very low shear rates (0.068 sec-1) at temperatures up to 200° F. Cannon-Fenske Viscosity Used to determine the viscosity of Newtonian Fluids such as water and oils. Gel breaker tests (Static Break Test) Are designed to determine the amount of breaker required to reduce the viscosity of frac pack, gravel pack or fluid loss polymer systems. These tests are performed at reservoir temperature up to 200°F in a waterbath for a specified time period, usually 4 to 6 hours. Required information includes the polymer type and loading, the base fluid type and weight, and the desired break time. Viscosity over time is monitored with a Fann 35 and plotted with respect to time. Curves for each concentration of breaker at given temperatures are derived and are used to estimate the break times to be seen under field conditions. Technical Services Laboratory Capabilities 6 Flow Testing Return Permeability Tests Return permeability testing can be used as a very valuable source of information to determine the optimum fluid to be used. The return permeability apparatus is designed to simulate flow through a core sample under down-hole conditions. The apparatus allows flow through a core from two directions under controlled pressure and temperature. In order to obtain accurate results, a consolidated core is required (1-1.5 inches in diameter by at least 2 inches in length, or a plug drilled from a whole core). Screen Evaluations To improve the ability to select the proper screen type to retain formation material in stand-alone screen completions, routine small-scale screen testing services are available. This testing involves flowing slurry consisting of either actual formation sand, or a lab sample of the same grain-size distribution, in either water or oil, through a 1.875 inch disc of different filter media. A selection can then be made concerning the screen that offers the best compromise between sand retention and screen plugging resistance. Quality Control In addition to the characterization testing described above, the Technical Services laboratories also perform quality control testing for critical materials. The following is a brief list of the most commonly performed quality assurance tests. Acid (Specific Gravity, color, clarity) Gravel Pack Sand (Sieve, Acid Solubility, Crush Resistance, Turbidity) BakerBond (Sieve, Acid Solubility, Gravity Permeability, Crush Resistance) Perfflow (Marsh Funnel Viscosity, Weight Measurement, Filter-Cake Test) Fraq Gels (Linear Gel Viscosity Measurement, Vortex Closure Time, Hydration Testing, Static & Dynamic Breaker Testing, Water Analysis) Gels (Viscosity Measurement, Leak-off, Breaker Testing) ...
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