History Notes

History Notes - Pages 325-334 1850.California Act for the...

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Pages 325-334 1850. California Act for the Government and Protection of Indians contains many provisions relating to the treatment, control, and use of Native Americans in California. Like Spain and Mexico before it, the new state of California had to decide how it was going to relate to the native peoples who continued to reside on their conquered lands. In the law linked above, it can be seen that one part of California’s response was to enable white people to purchase Native Americans as indentured servants. Many refer to this law as the “Indian Slavery Act”. Exactly how this squared with the natural and inalienable right to liberty established the previous year in the California constitution was not discussed in the statute. This act clearly illustrates the disdain that California lawmakers held toward Native Americans. The Treaty of Fort Laramie In the spring of 1868 a conference was held at Fort Laramie, in present day Wyoming, that resulted in a treaty with the Sioux. This treaty was to bring peace between the whites and the Sioux who agreed to settle within the Black Hills reservation in the Dakota Territory. The Black Hills of Dakota are sacred to the Sioux Indians. In the 1868 treaty, signed at Fort Laramie and other military posts in Sioux country, the United States recognized the Black Hills as part of the Great Sioux Reservation, set aside for exclusive use by the Sioux people. In 1874, however, General George A. Custer led an expedition into the Black Hills accompanied by miners who were seeking gold. Once gold was found in the Black Hills, miners were soon moving into the Sioux hunting grounds and demanding protection from the United States Army. Soon, the Army was ordered to move against wandering bands of Sioux hunting on the range in accordance with their treaty rights. In 1876, Custer, leading an army detachment, encountered the encampment of Sioux and Cheyenne at the Little Bighorn River. Custer's detachment was annihilated, but the United States would continue its battle against the Sioux in the Black Hills until the government confiscated the land in 1877. To this day, ownership of the Black Hills remains the subject of a legal dispute between the U.S. government and the Sioux. Chief Joseph’s Plea For Freedom *His speech became famous (p.346-347) Chapter 5 of First People
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Jostling for position *First Europeans arrived on the northern plains in 18 th century *Shoshonis has moved north and east, acquired horses from Ute and Comanche * Blackfeet moved to the north got horses and guns * Kiowa and Comanche bands were still on the northern Plains at end of century *Others entered from the East - Crows found homage in the Yellowstone region -Cheyenne crossed the Missouri River @ the Confluence of Guns and Horses *Guns were dispersing big time *Sioux dominated the northern and central Plains by the mid-nineteenth century Invaders from the East *Natives who were pushed off their lands from the East came migrating to the Plains
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This note was uploaded on 04/26/2010 for the course AMIND 141 taught by Professor Carrico during the Spring '10 term at SD State.

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History Notes - Pages 325-334 1850.California Act for the...

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