1LINCOLN MEMORIAL UNIVERSITYCaylor School of NursingASN Program -Nursing 115Fall 2019UNIT 6 LESSON PLAN:Study GuideTOPICAL OUTLINE:I.Infection Prevention and Control(Chapter 29)A.Scientific Knowledge Base1. Nature of Infection-the invasion of a susceptible host by pathogens, or microorganisms resultingin diseaseColonization-the presence and growth of microorganisms within a host but without tissue invasion ordamage.Communicable disease-an infectious disease that can be transmitted directly from one person to anotherSymptomatic-when pathogens multiply and cause clinical signs and symptoms.Asymptomatic-when clinical signs are not present.2. Chain of Infectiona. Infectious Agent-microorganisms include bacteria, viruses, fungi, and protozoa. Usuallyon the skin and are resident of transient flora.b. Reservoir-a place where microorganisms survive, multiply and await transfer to asusceptible host. Common reservoirs are humans, animals, insects, food, water, and organic matter(fomites). Frequent reservoirs for HAIs include health care workers, especially their hands.8/19/18
2c. Portal of Exit-blood, skin and mucous membranes, respiratory tract, GU tract, GI tract,and transplacental. (mother to fetus)d. Modes of Transmission-the major route of transmission is by unwashed hands.Equipment such as stethoscope, bp cuff, or bedside commode is a source of transmission.e. Portal of Entry-organisms enter the body the same way they exit the body.f. Susceptible Host-susceptibility to an infectious agent depends on an individual’s degree ofresistance to pathogens.B. The Infectious Process-box 29-11. Defenses against Infection-normal floras, body system defenses, and inflammation.Normal floras-do not usually cause disease. Normal floras of the skin exert a protective, bactericidal actionthat kills organisms landing on the skin.Body system defenses-each organ has defense mechanisms physiologically suited to its specific structure andfunction.Cause of infection by stages BOX 29-2 pg. 4461.Incubation period: interval between entrance of pathogen into body and appearance of first symptoms.2.Prodromal Stage: interval from onset of nonspecific signs and symptoms to more specific symptoms.3.Illness stage: interval when patient manifests signs and symptoms specific to type of infection.4.Convalescence: interval when acute symptoms of infection disappear.8/19/18
3Inflammation-the cellular response of the body to injury, infection, or irritation is termed inflammation. It is aprotective vascular reaction that delivers fluid, blood products, and nutrients to the area of injury.2. Health Care-Associated Infections-HAIs result from health care services in a health care facility.They occur as the result of invasive procedures, antibiotic administration, the presence of multidrug-resistant organisms, and breaks in infection prevention and control activities.