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Unformatted text preview: SPC 103: Developmental Psychology
Department of Psychology
School of Health and Natural Sciences
Sunway University College
Year 1 Semester 3
Lecture 7: Social and Emotional Development in
• Initiative Versus Guilt
Initiative Versus Guilt
• Children use their perceptual, motor, cognitive, and language skills to make things
• The governor of initiative is conscience, as children begin to hear the inner voice of
• Initiative may bring rewards or punishment.
• Widespread disappointment leads to an unleashing of guilt that lowers self-esteem.
• Leaving this stage with a sense of initiative rather than guilt depends on parental
responses to children’s self-initiated activities.
• The child’s cognitive representation of self, the substance and content of the child’s
• Based on the various roles and membership categories that define who they are.
• In early childhood, children usually conceive of the self in physical activities,
material possessions and body image.
• Young Children’s Emotion Language and Understanding
• Self-Conscious Emotions
• Self-conscious emotions require that children be able to refer to themselves and be
aware of themselves as distinct from others.
• Pride, shame, embarrassment, and guilt are self-conscious emotions.
• These emotions are especially influenced by parents’ responses to children’s
Young Children’s Emotion Language and Understanding
• In early childhood, children increased use of emotion language and the
understanding of emotion.
• Between 2 and 3 years, children considerably increase the number of terms they use
to describe emotion. 1 •
• Children also begin to learn about the causes and consequences of feelings.
At 4-5 years, children show an increased ability to reflect on emotions and a growing
awareness about controlling and managing emotions to meet social standards. Emotion Coaching and Emotion Dismissing Parents
• Parents play an important role in helping children regulate their emotions.
• Emotion coaching parents- monitor their children’s emotion, teach & assist in
labeling emotions, coaching how to deal effectively with emotions.
• Emotion dismissing parents – deny, ignore or change negative emotions.
• What Is Moral Development?
Freud’s view of moral reasoning
• Identify with parents, internalise moral standards to form superego - moral element
• Resolution of Oedipal Conflict is central in moral development.
• Anxiety and guilt are central to moral development.
• Reacting to another’s feelings with an emotional response that is similar to the
• Empathy is experienced as an emotional state, but it also has a cognitive component.
• The cognitive component is the ability to discern another’s inner psychological
• Emotions such as empathy, shame, guilt, and anxiety provide a natural base for the
child’s acquisition of moral values.
Piaget’s View of Moral Reasoning
• Heteronomous Morality
• Autonomous Morality
• The first stage of Piaget’s theory of moral development occurs from approximately
4-7 years of age.
• Justice and rules are conceived of as unchangeable properties of the world, removed
from the control of people.
• This stage involves the belief in imminent justice—the concept that, if a rule is
broken, punishment will be meted out immediately.
• Piaget’s second stage of moral development, which begins around age 10 and
continues throughout life. 2 • • At this point, the child realizes that rules and laws are created by people and that, in
judging an action, one should consider the actor’s intentions as well as the
Children between the ages of 7 and 10 are in transition and show features of both
stages. Moral Behavior
• The study of moral behavior has been influenced by behavioral and cognitive
• The processes of reinforcement, punishment, and imitation are used to explain moral
• The social cognitive view believes that:
• moral behavior is influenced extensively by the situation.
• the ability to resist temptation is closely tied to the development of self-control.
• cognitive factors are important in the development of self-control.
• What Is Gender?
Psychoanalytical and Social Cognitive Theories
Cognitive Influences What Is Gender?
• Sex - the biological dimension of being male or female.
• Gender - the social dimensions of being male or female.
• Gender identity - the sense of being male or female.
• Gender role - a set of expectations that prescribe how males or females should
think, act, and feel.
Influences of gender development
• Biological Influences (sex chromosomes, androgens and estrogens)
• Social Influences (pink and blue treatment, media, culture, school, parents)
• Parental Influences (ways father and mother interacts w child)
• Peer Influences (comformity, rewards and punishment of same/cross sex behaviour)
• Psychoanalytic theory & Social Cognitive theory of Gender*
• Cognitive Influences (Cognitive dev theory of gender & Gender schema theory)*
• Psychoanalytic and Social Cognitive Theories
• Psychoanalytic theory of gender maintains a preschool attraction to the opposite-sex
parent ultimately results in identification with the same-sex parent.
• Social cognitive theory emphasizes gender development occurs through observation
and imitation of gender behavior, and through the rewards and punishments for
gender appropriate and inappropriate behavior.
3 Cognitive Influences
• Cognitive Developmental Theory
• Gender Schema Theory
Cognitive Developmental Theory
• Theory proposes:
o Children’s gender typing occurs after they have developed a concept of
gender. (Gender Constancy)
o Once they consistently conceive of themselves as male or female, children
often organize their world on the basis of gender.
o Children use physical and behavioral clues to differentiate gender roles
and to gender-type themselves in early development.
o They then select same-sex models to imitate.
• Gender Schema Theory
o Children develop gender schemas of what is gender appropriate/
inappropriate in their culture.
o Children’s attention and behavior are guided by an internal motivation to
conform to these gender-based standards and stereotypes, allowing
children to interpret the world through a network of gender-organized
• Parenting Styles
• Child Abuse
• Good Parenting Takes Time and Effort
Parenting Styles (Diana Baumrind, 1971)
• Authoritarian Parenting
• Authoritative Parenting
• Neglectful Parenting
• Indulgent Parenting
• A restrictive, punitive style in which parents exhort the child to follow their
directions and to respect work and effort.
• These parents place firm limits and controls
on the child and allow little verbal
• Children of authoritarian parents often are unhappy, fearful, anxious, fail to initiate
activity, and have weak communication skills.
• Authoritative Parenting
• This style encourages children to be independent but still places limits and controls
on their actions. 4 •
• Extensive verbal give-and-take is allowed, and parents are warm and nurturant
toward the child.
Children of authoritative parents are often cheerful, self-controlled and self-reliant,
achievement-oriented, maintain friendships with peers, cooperate with adults, and
cope well with stress. Neglectful Parenting
• A style in which the parent is very uninvolved in the child’s life.
• It is associated with children’s social incompetence, especially a lack of self-control.
• Children whose parents are neglectful frequently have low self-esteem, are
immature, and may be alienated from the family.
• In adolescence, they may show patterns of truancy and delinquency.
• A style of parenting in which parents are highly involved with their children, but
place few demands or controls on them.
• Indulgent parenting is associated with children’s social incompetence, especially a
lack of self-control.
• The result is that children never learn to control their own behavior and always
expect to get their way.
• Children of indulgent parents may be aggressive, domineering, and noncompliant.
Parenting Styles in Context
• Elements of authoritarian style- take different meaning in different context.
• Ex: Asian : Control reflects concern & involvement with the children lives (Ruth
• Ex: Latino: Respect and obedience- part of maintaining harmonious home and
important in formation of child’s identity.
• Ex: Use of punishment in African Americans-prevent children from dangerous
• Estimated that 70-90% of American parents have spanked their children.
• Recent study of White, African American, and Latino families, showed spanking by
parents predicted an increase in children’s problems over time in all three groups.
o However, when parents showed strong emotional support of the child, link
between spanking and problems was reduced.
• Some reasons why spanking or other forms of intense punishment with children
should be avoided:
o When intense punishment is used, the adult is presenting the child with an
out-of-control model for handling stressful situations.
o Punishment can instill fear, rage, or avoidance in children.
• Punishment tells children what not to do rather than what to do.
Punishment can be abusive. 5 •
• Several countries have passed anti-spanking laws including Sweden, Germany,
Croatia, and Israel, among others.
Most child psychologists recommend reasoning with the child, especially explaining
the consequences of the child’s actions for others, as the best way to handle children’s
misbehaviors. Good Parenting Takes Time and Effort
• Good parenting takes a lot of time and effort.
• There is an unfortunate theme in today’s society which suggests that parenting can be
• Compact discs are marketed for parents to simply play Mozart’s music in order to
enrich young children’s brains.
• One-minute bedtime stories are also available, so parents can read to their children—
but not for long.
• These items are seen as supporting parental neglect and reducing their guilt. 6 ...
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