Lecture 4 Infanc - SPC 103 Developmental Psychology Department of Psychology School of Health and Natural Sciences Sunway University College Year 1

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Unformatted text preview: SPC 103: Developmental Psychology Department of Psychology School of Health and Natural Sciences Sunway University College Year 1 Semester 3 Lecture 4: Socioemotional Development in Infancy (0-3 years) Emotional and Personality Development • Emotions: feelings occurring when in a state or interaction with something that is important to the person; stronger if well-being is involved. • Emotions vary in intensity from subtle to dramatic. • Darwin: human facial expressions are innate. • Emotions linked to early development of: – Nervous system. – Limbic system. – Brain stem. • Neurobiological systems can exert more control over limbic system as child’s self-control develops. • Caregivers influence infant’s neurological development and regulation of emotions: – Emotions are first form of communication. – Infants react to others’ facial expressions, tone of voice, emotions. – Two broad types of emotions develop: • Primary: appear in first 6 months of life. • Self-conscious: appear from about age 1.5 years to about 2.5 years. • Most important ways of communicating, in the youngest infants, are crying and smiling. • Stranger anxiety involving fear: – First appears about 6 months of age. – Intensifies about 9 months of age, escalating past the 1st birthday. – • Intensity of anxiety depends on: • Proximity of mother. • Where stranger meeting occurs. • Stranger’s behavior. Separation anxiety: distress shown when caregiver leaves; peaks at about 15 months of age. 1 • Social referencing: “reading” emotional cues from others before acting in a situation; improves as infants age. • During 1st year of life, infant begins to develop ability to control intensity and duration of emotional reactions: – Thumb sucking and soothing by caregiver replaced in 2nd year by language as emotional release. Temperaments • Temperament: an individual’s behavioral style and characteristic way of emotionally responding. • Types of temperament: 1. Chess and Thomas (1977) found 3 basic types: – Easy: Positive mood, regular routine, adapts easily to new environment (40%) – Difficult: Negative mood, cries frequently, irregular routine, slow to accept change (10%) – Slow-to-warm: Low activity level, somewhat negative, low intensity mood. (15%) 2. Kagan’s behavioral inhibition classifies child as shy, subdued, timid, vs sociable, extraverted & bold (Jerome Kagan, 2000) Inhibition to the unfamiliar: react to the unfamiliar with initial avoidance & distress. - Extremely inhibited, extremely uninhibited, and intermediate group. 3. Temperament types of Rothbart and Bates (2006): – Extraversion/ Positive affect: Kagan’s uninhibited fit here. – Negative affect: Kagan’s inhibited fit here. – Effortful control: self-regulation as children with: • High control have successful coping strategies. • Low control are disruptive, intensely emotional. Influences of temperament: 1. Biological Kagan: child inherits a physiology that biases them to be naturally fearful and inhibited. 2. Gender Temperament may be influenced by: 2 – Parents who react differently to a boy or girl based on culture. 3. Culture Active Temperament (Western Culture vs Asian Culture) 4. Environment Environment and “goodness of fit” : the match between the child’s temperament and the environmental demands that with which the child must cope. • Three characteristics central to personality development: – Trust: Erikson believed a child learns to trust or mistrust in the 1st year of life in a way that affects later developmental stages. – Development of self through environmental experiences and ability to see self as others see it . – Independence; as child explores new situations and environments, takes risks, and learns muscle control. (Autonomy vs Shame and Doubt). Attachment • Attachment is a close emotional bond between two people. • Theories of attachment: – Freud: infants attached by oral satisfaction. – Harlow: comfort preferred over food. – Erikson: trust arises from physical comfort. – Bowlby: newborn is biologically equipped to elicit attachment behavior from caregiver. Individual Differences in Attachment • Strange Situation tests strength of infant attachment: – Securely attached: explores environment, displays little emotion when caregiver leaves. – Insecure avoidant: avoids caregiver but shows distress/crying when caregiver leaves. – Insecure resistant: clings to caregiver and protests loudly and actively if caregiver leaves. – Insecure disorganized: disorientation; extreme fearfulness may be shown even with caregiver. • • Ainsworth’s research criticized as lab experiments, not real-life & may be culturally biased. Attachment between infant and caregiver: – In 1st year of life, is foundation for later psychological development. – Helps child to survive while incapable of self-care. – Is not the only path to success because children are resilient and adaptive. 3 – – – Is affected by genetics and temperament (Kagan, 1987, 2000) Varies among different cultures of the world. Should be secure if child is to develop fully. Caregiving Styles and Attachment • Securely Attached: sensitive to their signals and are consistently available to respond to the infant’s needs. • Avoidant : unavailable/ rejecting. Don’t respond to infant’s need and have little physical contact. Interact in angry, irritable way. • Resistant: Inconsistent in caregiving. Not very affectionate with babies. • Disorganised: Neglect / physically abused them. Some cases, caregivers are depressed. 4 ...
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This note was uploaded on 04/27/2010 for the course PSYCHOLOGY SPC 204 taught by Professor Dr.john during the Spring '10 term at Sunway University College.

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