Chapter 16 Lateralization, Language and the Split Brain

Chapter 16 Lateralization, Language and the Split Brain -...

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Measuring Brain Activity Using EEG Anterior (front) region of the cerebral hemisphere Research found that activity of the anterior cerebral hemisphere in an individual is different between the left and the right. - This is called cerebral asymmetry Left hemisphere is for positive mood Right hemisphere is for negative mood People with higher right hemisphere activity level require a less intense negative event to feel fear or sadness. Little things are enough to make them feel bad Similar situation with the left hemisphere activity
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Chapter 16: Lateralization, Language and the Split Brain Lateralization of function Split brain Language Brain Function Brain function was discovered mainly through damage Finding out what patient could not do gave an idea of what the region was responsible for 16.1 Lateralization of Brain Function Two hemispheres are not mirror images of each other - Left hemisphere control right side of the body - Right control left side - Taste and smell input to same side Lateralization is the specialization of labor between the two hemispheres - Left hemisphere specialized for language - Right specialized for complex visual-spatial tasks and synthetic processing Commissures Commissures (CC): where axons connect hemispheres and exchange information - Corpus callosum is the primary information highway between hemispheres o Without CC, left hemisphere could only talk about information from right side of body and right hemisphere could only react to information from left side of body - Also includes the anterior and hippocampal commissures Visual and Auditory Connections to the Hemispheres Visual field: what is visible at any moment - Both eyes see both left and right visual fields - Right visual field goes to left half of both retinas, through optic chiasm to left hemisphere - Left visual field goes to left half of both retinas, through optic chiasm to right hemisphere - Center of both retinas, covering 5º arc of visual field, connects to both hemispheres Auditory field: each ear receive sound waves from just one side of head but each sends information to both sides of the brain Parietal lobe damage
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Left: language, naming objects, copy movement Right: drawings, puzzles, maps Other parietal lobe damage Apraxia – disorder in movement due to neurological damage Several types - Ex: Ideomotor apraxia – unable to copy movements or make gestures (wave “hello”) - Usually Left Posterior Parietal lesion - Test using serial arm-movement copy test - Those with right parietal lobe lesion can perform this task Cognitive Tasks A. Spatial-relation type task - Men more likely to pick correct response B. Mental-rotation type task - Males are generally more accurate than females in this task C. Short-term memory type task - When given a large number of boxes to fill in and a time limit, females complete 10/20% more items than males do D. Verbal-fluency type task -
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