Chapter 18 Biopsychology of psychiatric disorders

Chapter 18 Biopsychology of psychiatric disorders - 1...

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Chapter 18 Biopsychology of psychiatric disorders Also called psychological disorders Disorders of psychological function sufficiently severe to require treatment by a psychiatrist or clinical psychologist Neuropsychological disorders are a product of dysfunctional brains, so are psychiatric disorders Historical views: o Neuropsychological disorders are products of dysfunctional brains o Psychiatric disorders are dysfunctional minds Compared to neurophysiological disorders, psychiatric disorders o Are more influenced by experiential factors o Tend to be the product of more subtle forms of brain pathology o Tend to be less well understood 18.1 Schizophrenia Splitting of psychic functions o Affects 1% of the population What is schizophrenia? A diverse disorder – multiple types exist with varied profiles (e.g.catatonic) Only two needed for one month for diagnosis Common symptoms o Delusions: delusions of being controlled (eg. “Martians are making me think evil thoughts”), delusions of persecution (“My mother is trying to poison me”), delusions of grandeur (“Michael Jordan admires my sneakers” o Inappropriate affect : failure to react with an appropriate level of emotionality to positive or negative events o Hallucinations: imaginary voices telling the person what to do or commenting negatively on the person’s behaviour o Incoherent thought : illogical thinking, peculiar associations among ideas or belief in supernatural forces o Odd behaviour : long periods with no movement, a lack of personal hygiene, talking in rhymes, avoiding social interaction, echolalia Causal factors in schizophrenia Clear genetic basis – inherit an increased risk for the disorder Multiple causes o Several different chromosomes implicated o Early experiential factors – birth complications, early infections, autoimmune Appears that interference with the normal development of susceptible individuals may lead to development of the disorder 1
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Discovery of the first antischizophrenic drugs Much of our understanding of schizophrenia is a consequence of the drugs that are able to treat it Chlorpromazine – calms many agitated schizoprenics & activates many emotionally blunt schizophrenics Reserpine – also found to be effective to be effective, no longer use because it produces dangerous decline in blood pressure Both drugs are only effective after 2-3 weeks & Parkinson-like motor effects are seen Dopamine Theory of Schizophrenia Antipsychotic drug effects suggest role for dopamine – drugs work by decreasing dopamine levels; schizophrenia associated with dopamine over activity o Reserpine depletes brain dopamine & other monoamines by breaking down the synaptic vesicles o
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This note was uploaded on 04/27/2010 for the course PSYCHOLOGY SPC 211 taught by Professor Ms.chitra during the Spring '10 term at Sunway University College.

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Chapter 18 Biopsychology of psychiatric disorders - 1...

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