Lecture 1 - Topics covered General layout of the nervous...

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Topics covered General layout of the nervous system Cells of the nervous system Spinal cord Five major divisions of the brain Major structures of the brain 1) General layout of the nervous system 1. The nervous system can be divided into two divisions using several criteria: a) b) Brain vs spinal cord : comprise the 2 parts of CNS c) Somatic vs autonomic : comprise the 2 parts of PNS The somatic branch interacts with the external environment The autonomic branch interacts with the internal environment d) Efferent vs afferent : refers to whether nerves bring sensory information into CNS (afferent) or carry motor commands away from CNS (efferent) e) Sympathetic vs parasympathetic: two branches of the autonomic division of PNS Convention suggests that the sympathetic branch activates an organism while the parasympathetic branch acts to conserve energy Nervous System Central nervous system Peripheral nervous system Brain Spinal cord Somatic nervous system Autonomic nervous system Afferent nerves Efferent nerves Afferent nerves Efferent nerves Parasympathetic nervous system Sympathetic nervous system
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Each autonomic target organ is innervated by both branches & sympathetic activation indicates arousal, while parasympathetic activation indicates relaxation f) The cranial nerves (see Appendix III) are a special group of nerves that leave CNS from brain through the skull, rather than from the spinal cord These have specific sensory and/or motor functions (see Appendix IV) Disruption of these functions allow neurologists to accurately determine the 2. Central nervous system (CNS) a) Brain (in the skull) b) Spinal cord (in the spine) 3. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) a) b) c) Two types i. Somatic nervous system Afferent nerves (sensory) advance, approach, arrive Efferent nerves (motor) exit, escape, embark ii. Autonomic nervous system Both are efferent All nerves are efferent (motor) Two-stage neural paths, neuron exiting the CNS synapses on a second- stage neuron before the target organ Sympathetic Parasympathetic Thoracolumbar (back of chest) Craniosacral (inside the skull) “fight or flight” Second stage neurons are far from the target organ Second stage neurons are near the target organ 4. Meninges, ventricles & CSF
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a) The brain & spinal cord are well-protected by the skull & vertebrae, & by 3 membranes called: i. Dura mater – tough outer membrane (tough mother, outside) ii. Arachnoid membrane – weblike (spidery mother, middle) iii. Pia mater – adheres to CNS surface (gentle mother, inside)
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This note was uploaded on 04/27/2010 for the course PSYCHOLOGY SPC 211 taught by Professor Ms.chitra during the Spring '10 term at Sunway University College.

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Lecture 1 - Topics covered General layout of the nervous...

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