Chapter 5 Notes - Chapter 5 Physical Development in Infancy...

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Chapter 5 Physical Development in Infancy Learning Goals Discuss physical growth and development in infancy. Describe infants’ motor development. Explain sensory and perceptual development in infancy. The Newborn The Newborn Reflexes : (sucking, withdrawal, rooting, moro) Assessing the newborn: - Apgar score (5 physical signs, score 0-10) - Neonatal Behavioural Assessment Scale (evaluate behavioural and physical status) Newborn States Newborn spends their day in one of 4 states: 1. Alert inactivity- baby is calm, with eyes open and attentive, baby seems to be inspecting the environment 2. Waking activity – Eyes are open but unfocused; arms and legs moves in burst of uncoordinated motion . 3. Crying- basic cry, mad cry, pain cry. 4. Sleeping- sleep wake cycle 4 hours, ½ REM sleep; active form of sleep that may stimulate growth in the nervous system Sudden Infant Death Syndrome A healthy baby dies for no apparent reasons (before reaching the age of 1) More vulnerable if: 1) Low birth weight/ premature 2) Baby sleeps on its stomach 3) Overheated 4) Physiological stress; smoking “Back to Sleep” campaign Temperament Refers to a consistet style or pattern to an infant’s behaviour. Temperament influenced by both heredity and environment and is reasonably stable characteristics for infants and young children. Physical Development: Growth of the Body Physical growth is rapid during infancy, but babies differ in heights and weights. Size at maturity depend on heredity. 1
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Weight The average North American baby weighs 7½ pounds. Ninety-five percent of full-term newborns weigh between 5½ and 10 pounds. In the first several days of life, most newborns lose 5-7 percent of their body weight before they adjust to neonatal feeding. Infants gain 5-6 ounces per week during the first month. They have doubled their birthweight by the age of 3 to 4 months. They have nearly tripled their birthweight by their first birthday. Height The average North American newborn is 20 inches long. Ninety-five percent of full-term newborns are 18-22 inches long. Infants grow about 1 inch per month during the first year, reaching approximately 1½ times their birth length by their first birthday. Infants’ rate of growth is considerably slower in the second year of life. At age 2, the average infant is 32-35 inches long. Body growth The Cephalocaudal Pattern The cephalocaudal pattern is the sequence in which the greatest growth always occurs at the top—the head— with physical growth in size, weight, and feature differentiation gradually working its way down from top to bottom. This same pattern occurs in the head area, because the top parts of the head—the eyes
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Chapter 5 Notes - Chapter 5 Physical Development in Infancy...

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