Chapter 6 Notes - Chapter 6 Cognitive Development in...

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Chapter 6 Cognitive Development in Infancy Learning Goals 0. Summarize Piaget’s theory of infant development. 1. Describe how infants learn and remember. 2. Discuss the assessment of intelligence in infancy. 3. Explain language development in infancy. Summary of Piaget’s Theory 4. 1. Sensorimotor Stage (0-2years) 5. 2. Preoperational Stage (2-7 years) 6. 3. Concrete Operational Stage (7 – 11 years) 7. 4. Formal Operational Stage (11 through adulthood) Piaget’s Theory of Infant Development 0. Piaget believed that the child passes through a series of stages of thought from infancy to adolescence. 1. Passage through the stages results from biological pressure to adapt to the environment (through assimilation and accommodation) and to organize structures of thinking. 2. The stages are qualitatively different from one another. Schemes 8. Children have schemes (cognitive structures that help individuals’ organize and understand their experiences) from birth. 9. Schemes change with age. 10. As children grow older and gain more experience, they shift from using physically-based schemes to mentally-based schemes. The Sensorimotor Stage of Development 3. According to Piaget, this stage lasts from birth to about 2 years of age. 4. Mental development is characterized by considerable progression in the infant’s ability to organize and coordinate sensations with physical movements and actions. 5. Children progress from having little more than reflexive patterns to work with to complex sensorimotor patterns and a primitive system of symbols. Substages 11. Simple reflexes 12. First habits and primary circular reactions 13. Secondary circular reactions 14. Coordination of secondary circular reactions 15. Tertiary circular reactions, novelty, and curiosity 16. Internalization of schemes Simple Reflexes (0-1 month) 6. Stage corresponds to the first month after birth. 7. The basic means of coordinating sensation and action is through reflexive behaviors. 8. The infant develops an ability to produce behaviors that resemble reflexes in the absence of obvious reflexive stimuli (e.g., sucking upon simply seeing a bottle).
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9. This is evidence that the infant is initiating action and is actively structuring experiences in the first month of life. First Habits and Primary Circular Reactions (1-4months) 10. This stage develops between 1-4 months of age. 11. Infants’ reflexes evolve into adaptive schemes that are more refined and coordinated. 12. A habit is a scheme based on a simple reflex that has become completely separated from its eliciting stimulus.(I.e. sucking without present of bottle) 13. A primary circular reaction is a scheme based on the infant’s attempt to reproduce an interesting or pleasurable event that initially occurred by chance. 14. (I.e. searches fingers to suck again)
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Chapter 6 Notes - Chapter 6 Cognitive Development in...

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