Chapter 7 Notes - Chapter Seven Socioemotional Development...

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Chapter Seven Socioemotional Development in Infancy “We never know the love of our parents until we have become parents.” Henry Ward Beecher American Writer, 9 th Century Learning Goals 0. Discuss emotional and personality development in infancy. 1. Describe how attachment develops in infancy. 2. Explain how social contexts influence the infant’s development. Emotional Development 3. Defining Emotion 4. Affect in Parent-Child Relationships 5. Crying 6. Smiling 7. Fear 8. Social Referencing 9. Emotional Regulation and Coping Defining Emotion 0. Emotion is a feeling, or affect, that can involve physiological arousal, conscious experience, and behavioral expression. 1. Psychologists debate which of these components is the most important aspect of emotion, and how they mix to produce emotional experiences. 2. An important aspect of emotional development is emotional regulation. 3. During the first year, infants develop an ability to inhibit or minimize the intensity and duration of emotional responses. 4. An example of early emotional regulation are infants’ soothing themselves by sucking. Affect in Parent-Child Relationships 5. Emotions are the first language with which parents and infants communicate. 6. The initial aspects of infant attachment to parents are based on emotion-linked interchanges, as when an infant cries and the caregiver responds. 7. By the end of the first year, a mother’s facial expression— smiling or fearful—influences whether an infant will explore an unfamiliar environment. 8. When children hear their parents quarreling, they often react with distress. 9. Infant and adult affective communicative capacities make possible coordinated, bidirectional infant-adult interactions. Crying 0. Crying is the most important mechanism newborns have for communicating with their world. 1. Babies have at least three types of cries: 0. Basic cry is a rhythmic pattern usually consisting of a cry followed by a brief silence, then a short inspiratory high-pitched whistle, followed by a rest prior to another cry. 1. Anger cry is a variation of the basic cry with more excess air forced through the vocal cords. 2. Pain cry differs from other cries, as it suddenly appears without preliminary moaning and followed by an extended period of breath holding. Responding to Infant Cries 1
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2. Most parents, and adults in general, can determine whether an infant’s cries signify anger or pain. 3. Parents can distinguish the cries of their own baby better than those of a strange baby. 4. There exists controversy as to whether parents should respond to an infant’s cries or not, however, developmentalists increasingly argue that an infant cannot be spoiled in the first year of life. 5.
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Chapter 7 Notes - Chapter Seven Socioemotional Development...

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