BDC4e Chapter 4 - Chapter 4 TCP/IP and OSI Business Data...

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Chapter 4 : TCP/IP and OSI Business Data Communications, 4e
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What is a Protocol? Allows entities (i.e. application programs) from different systems to communicate Shared conventions for communicating information are called protocols Includes syntax, semantics, and timing
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Why Use Protocol Architecture? Data communications requires complex procedures Sender identifies data path/receiver Systems negotiate preparedness Applications negotiate preparedness Translation of file formats For all tasks to occur, high level of cooperation is required
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Modular Approach Breaks complex tasks into subtasks Each module handles specific subset of tasks Communication occurs between different modules on the same system between similar modules on different systems
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Advantages of Modularity Easier application development Network can change without all programs being modified
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Three-Layer Model Distributed data communications involves three primary components: Networks Computers Applications Three corresponding layers Network access layer Transport layer Application layer
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Network Access Layer Concerned with exchange of data between computer and network Includes addressing, routing, prioritizing, etc Different networks require different software at this layer Example: X.25 standard for network access procedures on packet-switching networks
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Transport Layer Concerned with reliable transfer of information between applications Independent of the nature of the application Includes aspects like flow control and error checking
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Application Layer Logic needed to support various applications Each type of application (file transfer, remote access) requires different software on this layer
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Addressing Each computer on a network requires a unique address on that network Each application requires a unique address within the computer to allow support for multiple applications (service access points, or SAP)
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Data Transmission Application layer creates data block Transport layer appends header to create PDU (protocol data unit)
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