02-Protocols and TCP-IP - Computer Networks with Internet...

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Unformatted text preview: Computer Networks with Internet Technology William Stallings Chapter 2 Protocols and the TCP/IP Protocol Suite Need For Protocol Architecture E.g. File transfer Source must activate comms. Path or inform network of destination Source must check destination is prepared to receive File transfer application on source must check destination file management system will accept and store file for his user May need file format translation Task broken into subtasks Implemented separately in layers in stack Functions needed in both systems Peer layers communicate Key Elements of a Protocol Syntax Data formats Signal levels Semantics Control information Error handling Timing Speed matching Sequencing Protocol Architecture Task of communication broken up into modules For example file transfer could use three modules File transfer application Communication service module Network access module Figure 2.1 Simplified Architecture for File Transfer A Three Layer Model Network Access Layer Transport Layer Application Layer Network Access Layer Exchange of data between the computer and the network Sending computer provides address of destination May invoke levels of service Dependent on type of network used (LAN, packet switched etc.) Transport Layer Reliable data exchange Independent of network being used Independent of application Application Layer Support for different user applications e.g. e-mail, file transfer Figure 2.2 Protocol Architectures and Networks Addressing Requirements Two levels of addressing required Each computer needs unique network address Each application on a (multi-tasking) computer needs a unique address within the computer The service access point or SAP The port on TCP/IP stacks Figure 2.3 Protocols in Simplified Architecture Protocol Data Units (PDU) At each layer, protocols are used to communicate Control information is added to user data at each layer Transport layer may fragment user data Each fragment has a transport header added Destination SAP Sequence number Error detection code This gives a transport protocol data unit Figure 2.4 Protocol Data Units Network PDU Adds network header network address for destination computer Facilities requests Figure 2.5 Operation of a Protocol Architecture Standardized Protocol Architectures Required for devices to communicate Vendors have more marketable products Customers can insist on standards based equipment Two standards: OSI Reference model Never lived up to early promises...
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This note was uploaded on 04/27/2010 for the course BAMU BSC taught by Professor Kmm during the Spring '10 term at University of New York in Prague.

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02-Protocols and TCP-IP - Computer Networks with Internet...

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