fed_courts_2007-1 - FederalCourts Federal Courts.1 Judicial...

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Federal Courts Federal Courts .......................................................................................................................................................... 1 Judicial Review & Rules of Justiciability ................................................................................................................ 4 JUDICIAL REVIEW ........................................................................................................................................... 4 General Considerations .................................................................................................................................... 4 Judicial Review ................................................................................................................................................ 4 Private v. Public Rights Models ....................................................................................................................... 5 JUSTICIABILITY: CONSTITUTIONAL & PRUDENTIAL LIMITS ON FEDERAL JUDICIAL POWER..5 Justiciability Rules Generally .......................................................................................................................... 5 Advisory Opinions ........................................................................................................................................... 5 Finality ............................................................................................................................................................. 6 Standing ........................................................................................................................................................... 7 Mootness .......................................................................................................................................................... 8 Ripeness ........................................................................................................................................................... 9 Political Question Doctrine ............................................................................................................................ 10 Congressional Regulation of Federal Jurisdiction & Non-Article III Courts ........................................................ 11 CONGRESSIONAL REGULATION OF JURISDICTION ............................................................................. 11 Congressional Restriction of Lower Federal Court Jurisdiction .................................................................... 11 Congressional Restriction of U.S. Supreme Court Appellate Jurisdiction .................................................... 11 Congressional Power to Withdraw All Federal Jurisdiction .......................................................................... 12 Congressional Preclusion of Both State and Federal Court Jurisdiction ....................................................... 12 Congressional Apportionment of Jurisdiction Among Federal Courts .......................................................... 13 NON-ARTICLE III TRIBUNALS .................................................................................................................... 13 Congressional Power to Create Legislative Courts ....................................................................................... 13 Non-Article III Courts as Adjuncts for Private Civil Disputes ...................................................................... 13 Categorical Approach of Northern Pipeline .................................................................................................. 14 Current Law – Balancing Approach .............................................................................................................. 14 Seventh Amendment Right to Jury Trial ....................................................................................................... 16 Summary Test Of Section .............................................................................................................................. 16 MILITARY TRIBUNALS ................................................................................................................................. 16 Military Tribunals Generally ......................................................................................................................... 16 Military Tribunals in the United States .......................................................................................................... 17 Military Tribunals Abroad to Try Defendants Abroad .................................................................................. 17 Judicial Review and Habeas Corpus Relief of Military Commissions .......................................................... 18 Military Commissions and the War on Terror ............................................................................................... 18 Military Commissions Act of 2006 ................................................................................................................ 19 State Court Jurisdiction & Supreme Court Review of State Court Decisions ....................................................... 20 FEDERAL AUTHORITY AND STATE-COURT JURISDICTION ............................................................... 20 Generally – State Courts Have Concurrent Jurisdiction ................................................................................ 20 Congressional Exclusion of State Court Jurisdiction ..................................................................................... 20 Forbidden State Court Proceedings Against Federal Officials ...................................................................... 21 Obligation of State Courts to Enforce Federal Law ....................................................................................... 21 SUPREME COURT REVIEW OF STATE COURT DECISIONS .................................................................. 22 Authority for Supreme Court Review of State Court Decisions .................................................................... 22 Independent and Adequate State Grounds Doctrine ...................................................................................... 23 Ambiguous or Unclear Reliance on Federal Law .......................................................................................... 24 Procedural Bars As an Independent and Adequate State Ground .................................................................. 24 Writ of Habeas Corpus for Executive Detentions and State Prisoners .................................................................. 26 1
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FEDERAL HABEAS CORPUS & THE WAR ON TERROR ......................................................................... 26 Habeas Corpus Generally .............................................................................................................................. 26 Due Process Rights for U.S. Citizen Enemy Combatants ............................................................................. 26 Territorial Jurisdiction in Habeas ................................................................................................................... 27 The Proper Respondent .................................................................................................................................. 27 HABEAS CORPUS & STATE PRISONERS GENERALLY .......................................................................... 28 Habeas Corpus Generally .............................................................................................................................. 28 History of Relitigating Habeas Issues Already Raised in State Court ........................................................... 28 PREREQUISITES FOR FEDERAL HABEAS CORPUS – THE EXHAUSTION DOCTRINE .................... 29 Generally ........................................................................................................................................................ 29 The Custody Doctrine .................................................................................................................................... 29 The Exhaustion Doctrine ............................................................................................................................... 29 PROCEDURAL DEFAULTS ........................................................................................................................... 31 Procedural Defaults Generally ....................................................................................................................... 31 Historical Approach – The “Deliberate-Bypass” Standard ........................................................................... 31 Modern Doctrine ............................................................................................................................................ 31 SECOND OR SUCCESSIVE PETITIONS – “ABUSE OF THE WRIT” ........................................................ 33 Historical Approach – Deliberate Bypass Standard ....................................................................................... 33 Claims Previously Presented .......................................................................................................................... 33 Claims Not Previously Presented ................................................................................................................... 33 Original Habeas Jurisdiction of Supreme Court Not Barred ......................................................................... 34 THE TEAGUE RETROACTIVITY DOCTRINE ............................................................................................ 34 Generally ........................................................................................................................................................ 34
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