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Milligan Crim Law Outline Spring 2009

Milligan Crim Law Outline Spring 2009 - CriminalLawOutline...

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Criminal Law Outline I. Purposes of Crim law a. Punishment Theory: i. Retribution  – legal revenge (but it’s backward-looking) ii. Deterrence 1. Special - to deter that particular person 2. General  – to deter the population in general  a. Draws from economics (fines = worth/percentage cost of protection but  if thief does not have the money he doesn’t care. Jails are for people  who can’t be deterred by fines 3. Rehabilitation a. Imprisonment provides the opportunity to mold/reform criminal into a  person who will conform his behavior to societal nouns upon return to  society i. May take short time to rehab from heinous crimes ii. May take long time to rehab from minor crimes II. The Requirement of a “Voluntary Act” a. The Act Requirement i. Crime  = 3 externalities + mens rea 1. Externalities: a. Conduct – action or inaction where you have a legal duty to act (always  need conduct but sometimes results + att circumstances no req’d) b. Results – consequences of act c. Attendant circumstances – setting ii. Elements of crime 1. Actus Reus – voluntary physical act a. 2 essential components i. Voluntariness ii. Act/Omission b. Voluntary Act – involves a physical behavior; it does not include the  mental process of planning or thinking about the physical act that gives  rise to the physical activity, failed to act under circumstances imposing a  legal duty to act.  For this purpose, an act is defined as a bodily  movement. 2. Mens Rea – Guilty act 3. Concurrence – Physical act and mental state existed @ same time 4. Harmful result and causation   harmful result was caused by  ’s act iii. Issues re: Voluntary  1. Acts that  MAY  be voluntary (depending on jurisdiction) a.  is unaware of what he is doing at the time b. Spasms, seizures
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c. Multiple personalities:  if one personality is conscious and able to  control movements, person liable. d. Somnabulism:  sleepwalking, involuntary drunkenness, hypnotism,  epileptic seizures   e. Voluntary act can include “possession” of an item, if knowingly 2. Factors to consider for voluntariness: a. Has it happened before? b. How frequently? c. Is there foreseeable risk? d. Is there a diagnosis? 3. Acts that are NOT voluntary a. Conduct that is not the product of the actor’s determination i. EX: A shoves B into C, with the result that C fails to his death.  B  can NOT be held criminally liable for C’s death.
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