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Astrostudy2-SchA-s10 - STUDY GUIDE#2 FOR ASTRONOMY 100...

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STUDY GUIDE #2 FOR ASTRONOMY 100, Schneider & Arny, Dr. Hedin Units 17-25 and Units 32-34 1. Know the definition of “escape velocity” (in words), and generally how the mass and radius of a planet affect the escape velocity from that planet. Escape velocity is the minimum velocity needed to escape a gravitational field. i n physics, escape velocity is the speed at which the kinetic energy plus the gravitational potential energy of an object is zero. Imagine that a spaceship of mass m is at a distance r from the center of mass of the planet, whose mass is M . Its initial speed is equal to its escape velocity, v e . At its final state, it will be an infinite distance away from the planet, and its speed will be negligibly small and assumed to be 0. Kinetic energy K and gravitational potential energy U g are the only types of energy that we will deal with, so by the conservation of ' energy' , The escape velocity is proportional to the square root of the mass divided by the radius. The smaller the radius the higher the escape velocity. Light is 300,000 km./second. 2. Know that visible light, radio waves, x-rays, etc. are all part of the electromagnetic spectrum, and know how they compare in wavelength or frequency. How do frequency and wavelength and the energy of the photon relate? (For example, blue light has higher frequency and energy, and a shorter wavelength than red light.) wavelength is difference between peaks.. (lamda) frequency is the number of cycles/second that pass by a given point. V= lamda * frequency. A photon is a particle of light. Energy= H (constant) * Frequency higher frequency means higher energy. Radio is low frequency hi energy. Gamma rays high frequency low energy. No the whole spectrum 3. Know which types of radiation are blocked by the Earth’s atmosphere (thankfully !). visible light and radio waves easily go through our atmosphere. The rest of the waves are blocked.
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