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disasters10.23notes - 1 8.2 Ch 8 Volcanic Eruptions Date...

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1 8.2: Ch. 8 – Volcanic Eruptions Date: ___________ Volcanic Explosivity Index (VEI): includes: (1) volume of material erupted; (2) how high the eruption reached; and, (3) how long the major eruptive blast lasted (Fig. 8.14) The VEI ranges from 0 to 8 ; examples: 0: Kilauea, Hawaii, 1983 to present 1: Stromboli, Italy, 1996 2: Unzen, Japan, 1994 3: Nevado del Ruiz, Columbia, 1985 4: El Chichon, Mexico, 1982 5: St. Helens, WA, 1980 6: Pinatubo, Indonesia, 1991 Krakatau, Indonesia, 1883 Vesuvius, Italy, 79 CE Thera (Santorini), Greece, 1628 BCE 7: Tambora, Indonesia, 1815 8: Toba, Indonesia, ~73,000 BCE Yellowstone, Wyoming, ~640,000 BCE ♦♦ The “Three Vs” - Viscosity, Volatiles, Volume: ● Viscosity : controls whether magma flows away or piles up ● Volatiles : may ooze out harmlessly or blast out explosively ● Volume : the greater the volume, the more intense the eruption
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2 ♦♦ Shield Volcanoes : low viscosity, low volatiles, large volume; basaltic lava flows cool to form a volcano that is much wider than it is tall Hawaiian-type : commonly preceded by a series of EQs , as rock fractures and moves out of the way for swelling magma; escaping gases can create a “curtain of fire” (lava fountains) , followed by basaltic lava spilling out of fissures and down mountain slopes as red-hot rivers Although few lives are lost in these eruptions, the lava flows engulf and incinerate buildings, bury highways, and cause drops
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