Lessons 7-11 Bio 1106.docx - Lessons 7-11 Biology 1106 Lesson 7 Body Hierarchy o Cells-> tissues-> organ-> organ system Organs have a combination of all

Lessons 7-11 Bio 1106.docx - Lessons 7-11 Biology 1106...

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Lessons 7-11 Biology 1106 Lesson 7 - Body Hierarchy o Cells -> tissues -> organ -> organ system Organs have a combination of all four tissue types Epithelium Connective Muscle Nervous o Groups of tissues found in an embryo at the gastrula stage of development Ectoderm – produces epithelial and nervous tissue Mesoderm – produces muscle, connective, and epithelial tissues of circulatory system, skeletal systems and parts of excretory system Endoderm – produces only epithelial tissue and specifically linings of respiratory and digestive tracts - Types of tissues o Epithelium: forms exterior and interior linings of organs Functions: protection, secretion, absorption, erosion Erosion: keratin - hair, nails, toughness of epidermis o Connective: produce non-cellular matrix providing support, cushion, and transport Non cellular matrix of blood: Plasma (composed of a aqueous mixture of proteins) Types: Loose: between skin and organs Dense: tendons, ligaments, sheathing around muscles Special: cartilage, bone, blood Provides a framework for other tissues in the organ system o Muscle: allows movement Smooth involuntary/autonomic: blood vessels, digestive tract, other organs with inv/aut Skeletal involuntary/somatic: attach to bones Cardiac: in heart only, involuntary/autonomic o Nerve: conducts electrochemical signals called impulses Sensory, motor, and interneurons - Organ Systems o Any organ has a combination of all four types of tissues o Histology: study of normal tissues o Functions of the skin: protection from trauma, pathogens, UV radiation and water loss, homeostasis of body temp and sensing external environment, synthesis of vitamin D for calcium metabolism - Homeostasis o Ectotherm – heat comes from the external environment Amphibians, gators, turtles o Endotherm – organism generates its own heat
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Humans, dogs o Special case of endotherm: Homeotherm – maintains stable temperature (can vary and is not necessarily much higher than surroundings) Birds o Behaviors to regulate temp Shade/sun Orientation to sun Stilting Nocturnal, diurnal or crepuscular Crepuscular: animals that are active primarily during twilight (dawn and dusk) o Surface Area: Volume Ratio Living things with large volumes have proportionally less surface area = smaller SA to vol. ratio compared to living things with small volumes Smaller animal = more surface area o Negative and Positive Biofeedback Negative: brings the system back to the set point Positive: maintain a metabolic function Lesson 8: Nervous System Structure - Neuron o Dendrites get info from axons or receptors o Cell body has nucleus; action potential starts at the neck o Axon carries into to synapse; action potential o Node of Ranvier allows for saltatory transmission o Synapses release neurotransmitter - Neurons pt 2 o Neurons – cells o Nerve Fascicle – Bundle of cells o Nerve – not quite an organ of neurons and connective tissues o Nervous system – organs (brain, spinal cord) - Subdivisions of the Nervous System o Effectors include: Muscles of sense organs
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