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Unformatted text preview: 113 11 Gases 11.1 a. Gaseous particles have greater kinetic energies at higher temperatures. Because kinetic energy is a measure of the energy of motion, the gaseous particles must be moving faster at higher temperatures than at lower values. b. Because particles in a gas are very far apart, gases can be easily compressed without the particles bumping into neighboring gas particles. Neighboring particles are much closer together in solids and liquids, and they will “bump” into each other and repel each other if the sample is compressed. c. Because the particles of a gas are very far apart, only a small amount of mass (due to the gas particles themselves) is found in a given volume of space. 11.2 a. At the higher temperature in the fire, the number of collisions against the container’s walls increases because the gaseous particles have greater velocities. This increases the pressure in the can, and if that pressure exceeds what the container can endure, then the container will explode. b. The particles of a gas move faster at higher temperatures. This causes the particles to spread farther apart, reducing the gas sample’s density. The density of air in the balloon is less, which causes it to rise until its density becomes equal to the surrounding atmosphere. c. Particles of a gas move rapidly and in straight lines until they reach a person who notices the odor. 11.3 a. temperature b. volume c. amount of gas d. pressure 11.4 a. temperature b. pressure c. volume d. amount of gas 11.5 Some units used to describe the pressure of a gas are pounds per square inch ( which is also abbreviated as psi), atmospheres (abbreviated atm), torr, mm Hg, in. Hg, pascals (Pa), and kilopascals (kPa). 11.6 Statements a, d, and e describe the pressure of a gas. 11.7 a. b. c. d. 11.8 a. b. c. d. 0.614 atm 1.013 10 5 Pa 1 atm 62 200 Pa 467 mm Hg 1 cm 10 mm 1 in. Hg 2.54 cm 18.4 in. Hg 467 mm Hg 1 torr 1 mm Hg 467 torr 467 mm Hg 1 atm 760 mm Hg 0.614 atm 2.00 atm 101.3 kPa 1 atm 203 kPa 2.00 atm 760 mm Hg 1 atm 1520 mm Hg 2.00 atm 14.7 lb/in. 2 1 atm 29.4 lb/in. 2 2.00 atm 760 torr 1 atm 1520 torr lb/in. 2 , 47374_11_p113-128.qxd 2/9/07 9:09 AM Page 113 114 Chapter 11 11.9 The gases in the diver’s lungs (and dissolved in the blood) will expand because pressure decreases as the diver ascends. Unless the diver exhales, the expanding gases could rupture the membranes in the lung tissues. In addition, the formation of gas bubbles in the bloodstream could cause “the bends.” 11.10 According to Boyle’s law, gases expand as the pressure is decreased. Because atmospheric pressure decreases as altitude increases, the volume of gas sealed in the bag of chips will increase at higher altitudes....
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This note was uploaded on 04/27/2010 for the course CHEM 103 taught by Professor Robinson during the Spring '10 term at University of Toronto.
- Spring '10