2010SpringA_[Compatibility_Mode][1]

2010SpringA_[Compatibility_Mode][1] - Organic Chemistry:...

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1 Organic Chemistry: Introduction ± “Organic” – until mid 1800’s referred to compounds from living sources (mineral sources were “inorganic”) ± Wöhler in 1828 showed that urea, an organic compound, could be made from a minerals (NH 4 ) + (OCN) - C O H 2 N NH 2 ammonium cyanate urea Heat 1 ± The study of the compounds of carbon. ± Over 10 million compounds have been identified. ± About 1000 new ones are identified each day! Organic Chemistry: Introduction ± Today, organic compounds are those based on carbon structures d ihi t td i thi and organic chemistry studies their structures and reactions ± Includes biological molecules, drugs, solvents, dyes ± Does not include metal salts and materials (inorganic) ± Does not include materials of large repeating molecules without sequences (polymers) 2 Lipitor Zocor tumor-specific carbohydrate antigens O HO HO AcHN O HO OH AcHN OH CO2H O O HO AcHN HO HO OH AcHN OH CO2H O HO HO OH HO O HO OH OH (Hypercholesterolemia) Nexium (GRED, gastric ulcers)
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2 Carbon ± C is a small atom. ± It forms single, double and triple bonds. ± It is intermediate in electronegativity (2.5). ± A small dense nucleus, diameter 10 -14 -10 -15 m, which contains positively charged protons and most of the mass of the atom. ± An extranuclear space, diameter 10 -10 m, which contains negatively charged electrons. ± It forms strong bonds with C, H, O, N, and some metals. 3 None of the electrons are the same ! (Or 1 angstroms) Electron Configuration of Atoms ± Electrons are confined to regions of space called principle energy levels (hl l) Number of Relative Energies (shells). ± Each shell can hold 2 n 2 electrons ( n = 1,2,3,4. ..... ). ± Shells are divided into subshells called orbitals, which are designated by the letters s , p , d , f ........ ± s (one per shell) Shell Electrons Shell Can Hold of Electro ns in These Shells 32 18 8 2 4 3 2 1 higher lower 4 ± p (set of three per shell 2 and higher) ± d (set of five per shell 3 and higher) . .… Shell Orbitals Contained in That Shell 3 2 11 s 2 s , 2 p x , 2 p y , 2 p z 3 s , 3 p x , 3 p y , 3 p z , plus five 3 d orbitals
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3 Electron Configuration of Atoms Electrons are placed in accordance with the quantum chemistry principles (aufbau, Hund’s rule, Pauli exclusion principle) that dictate the lowest energy form of carbon ± Aufbau Aufbau (“Build (“Build-Up”) Principle: Up”) Principle: ± Orbitals fill in order of increasing energy from lowest energy to highest energy. ± Pauli Exclusion Principle: ± No more than two electrons may be present in an orbital. If two electrons are present, their spins must be paired. 2 p principle) that dictate the lowest energy form of carbon. 5 ± Hund’s Hund’s Rule: Rule: ± When orbitals of equal energy are available but there are not enough electrons to fill all of them, one electron is added to each orbital before a second electron is added to any one of them; the spins of the electrons in degenerate orbitals should be aligned.
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This note was uploaded on 04/28/2010 for the course ORGANIC organic taught by Professor Nikles during the Spring '10 term at University of Alabama at Birmingham.

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2010SpringA_[Compatibility_Mode][1] - Organic Chemistry:...

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