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culinary_ch_30 - ElizabethSchovee Chapter30:...

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Elizabeth Schovee Chapter 30: Principles of the Bakeshop Sorry this is so long. It is a very dense chapter! Yay! When baking it is very important to follow the formulas! Pay close attention to accurate  measurements of ingredients, combination of ingredients, and the heat applied to the  ingredients! Bakeshop Tools  (Figure 30.1): Always look for quality and durability Cake turntable, dough cutter, rolling pin, cooling rack, sugar pot Springform pans, tartlet pans, petit four molds: used to shape and hold batters and  doughs Spatulas used to spread icing and fillings Piping tools and cake comb used to decorate and finish baked goods Ovens: conventional, convection, or steam injection models Flour        Flour provides bulk and structure to baked goods Can be used to thicken liquid in items like pudding and pie fillings Can be used to prevent foods from sticking during preparation and baking Flour is created when grains and kernels are milled into a powder o Grains: grasses that bear edible seeds. EX: corn, rice, wheat High in carbohydrates, low in fat. Grains hold vitamins, but some are lost during milling  Wheat Flour:  About o Made by milling wheat kernels o Has an outer covering called  bran  (potatoes, pasta and grains all have  this covering) o Bran is composed of several layers that protects the endosperm which  contains fat and serves at wheat seed o During milling the kernels pass through metal rollers to crack them. After  the bran and germ are removed through sifting. The remaining  endospermare ground into flour. Two kinds of flour from this process: Fine flour (patent flour): made from the endosperm closest to the  germ Course/Darker flour: made from endosperm closest to the bran Composition of Flour
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o 5 nutrients in flour: Fat (<1%), minerals (<1%), moisture, starches (63-77%), and proteins Starch-necessary for absorption during baking. This is called gelatinization , and occurs at temperatures above 140f. Starches also  provide food for yeast during  fermentation o Gluten:  an elastic network of protein created when flour is moistened and  manipulated (glutenin and gliadin are he proteins in flour that create gluten when  manipulated) Gluten is tough and rubbery, and is formed when water and flour are  mixed Under pressure Gluten is plastic (changes shape). When pressure is  removed gluten becomes elastic and resumes its original shape Gluten is responsible for the volume, texture, and appearance of baked  goods It also enables dough to retain gases given off by leavening agents Gluten is responsible for the rise in bread: 
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