IS StudyGuide - Differentiation Overall Cost Leadership...

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People Technology Process Social System Technical System siness Strategy ganizational Strategy Information Strategy Differentiation Overall Cost Leadership Focus Uniqueness Perceived Low Cost Position By Customer Industry-wide Particular Segment Only Information Systems Book Notes Lauryn Helbig I. Chapter 1: Information Systems and the Role of General and Functional Managers a. General Manager: manager who is in charge of the entire business organization or a business unit b. Functional Manager: manager who is in charge of a team c. End user: individuals who have direct contact with software applications as they use them to carry out specific tasks II. Chapter 2: Information Systems Defined a. Information System: formal, sociotechnical, organizational systems designed to collect, process, store, and distribute information i. IT - cornerstone, enables and constrains action through rules of operation that stem from its design ii. People - individuals or groups directly involved in the information system iii. Process - series of steps necessary to complete a business activity; Enacted by people iv. Structure - organizational design, reporting, and relationships within the information system v. Systemic Effects: all four components of the information system work together (interdependence) vi. Efficiency: the ability to limit waste and maximize the ratio of output produced to input consumed vii.Effectiveness: ability to achieve stated goals or objectives b. Information Technology: hardware, software, and telecommunication equipment c. Information: processed data d. Every organization has: i. Firm Strategy: represents the manner which the organization intends to achieve its objectives; tells us what the firm is trying to do and what course of action it has chartered to get there ii. Firm Culture: collection of beliefs, expectations, and values shared by the members of an organization; captures the way the firm operates iii. Infrastructure: technological backbone of the firm, constrains and enables opportunities for future I.S. implementations External Environment: encompasses regulation, competitive landscape, and general business and social trends e. Types of Change i. First Order Change: automate; occurs when an IT innovation is introduced that changes how an existing process is formed; requires little executive sponsorship or involvement (red arrow) ii. Second Order Change: informate; the manner in which the process is performed changes and those individuals who performed the process are affected by the change- either their role is modified or a different set of people Clark Fall 2009 1
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Information Systems Book Notes Lauryn Helbig are involved; seeks to take advantage of available market opportunities (blue arrow) iii. Third Order Change: transform; the interaction between structure and technology is substantiated by a change in the way the organization selects, uses, and manages technology; requires significant management and executive involvement (green
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IS StudyGuide - Differentiation Overall Cost Leadership...

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