AP_Chem_Exam_1_StudyGuide[2]

AP_Chem_Exam_1_StudyGuide[2] - When there is little or no...

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When there is little or no data present, rely on trends, rules, and judgment. (theories, charts, tables) When there is a lot of data present, then solutions are relative to the level of detail you have. (calculations, facts, equations) Periodic Table -Metals -Cation Formers (+ charge)(some are multiple cation formers) -Nonmetals -Anion Formers (- charge) -Metalloids -Periods (across) -Groups (up and down) Periodic Law – the statement of a periodic reoccurrence of chemical and physical properties of the elements when the elements are arranged in order of increasing atomic number Nucleus -atomic number (number of protons) -mass number (sum of protons and neutrons)(mass#-atomic#=#neutron ) -isotopes (different neutron count for the same element) -nucleons = p + and n 0 -isotopes = nuclides Nuclear Formula - 12 6 C -hyphen notation: Carbon-12 Neutron to Proton Raito: -MUST be within the band of stability to be an isotope -too high: not enough binding energy to keep atom together, will “fall apart”(neutron rich, proton poor) -too low: .repulsive forces of p + disintegrate atom; p + will “fly away” (neutron poor, proton rich) Decay Change in: Mass # Atomic # -Alpha Decay (α): Parent 0 -1 e -1 + Daughter -4 -2 -Beta Decay (β - ): Parent 4 2 He +2 + Daughter 0 +1 -e - Capture(β + ): Parent 0 +1 e +1 + Daughter 0 -1 -Positron Emmission: Parent + 0 -1 e -1 Daughter 0 -1 Isotope Chart 1. Atom 2. Neutron: Proton Ratio
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X < 1.0 1.0 ≤ x ≥ 1.5 x > 1.5 Atomic # x ≥26? Atomic # x ≥84? Beta Decay Yes No e- Capture Positron Yes No Alpha Stable! *Note, if atom is not stable, keep going! If not, stop* Decay Series -mixing and linking decay types to achieve a stable endpoint; sequence does not matter -first check ∆mass # and ∆atomic # -solve for ∆mass # (alpha) THEN ∆atomic # (up- β - ) (down- e - cap) Transmutation “atom smashing” -α-transmutation: Parent + 4 2 He +2 Daughter -n 0 -transmutation: Parent + 1 0 n 0 Daughter Mass Defect -∆(Theoretical - Actual Mass) = Mass Defect -mass lost = energy lost when atom forms -E=mc 2 , Energy (kg(m/s) 2 orJ) = (Mass Defect(AMU=g/mol))(kg/1000g)(Speed of Light) 2 . Nuclear Binding Energy -energy required to separate a nucleus into its individual parts -Nuclear Binding Energy = Energy Loss (E=mc 2 ) -everyone wants to be iron in the end -why? Iron has the greatest nuclear bonding energy loss -the greater the nuclear bonding energy loss, the greater the stability Fission -fragmentation of nucleus on its path towards iron -when fission occurs, we get energy back -fragments will resemble iron as closely as they can -working our way back to iron, breaking into two new atoms -chain reactions where #n 0 out > #n 0 in -subcritial mass – not enough to run reaction -critical mass- enough to run reaction -supercritical mass- enough to run reaction fast! *Rate of Decay for Nuclear Chemistry is only changed/altered by MASS * # of Stable Isotopes p + n 0 157 Even Even 53 Even Odd 50 Odd Even 5 Odd Odd
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Fusion -building up towards iron from smaller units -starts with a β - decay process in a dense environment (heat) - n 0 p + + e -1 , p + = 1 1 H -atoms building up to iron -sun shrinking problems & supernova explosions Half-Life
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