Chapter 6 Vocabulary - Chapter 6 Vocabulary actin: A...

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Chapter 6 Vocabulary actin : A globular protein that links into chains, two of which twist helically about each other, forming microfilaments (actin filaments) in muscle and other kinds of cells. basal body : A eukaryotic cell structure consisting of a 9 + 0 arrangement of microtubule triplets. The basal body may organize the microtubule assembly of a cilium or flagellum and is structurally very similar to a centriole. capsule : A sticky layer that surrounds the cell wall of some prokaryotes, protecting the cell surface and sometimes helping to glue the cell to surfaces. cell fractionation : The disruption of a cell and separation of its parts by centrifugation. central vacuole : A membranous sac in a mature plant cell with diverse roles in reproduction, growth, and development. centriole : A structure in the centrosome of an animal cell composed of a cylinder of microtubule triplets arranged in a 9 + 0 pattern. A centrosome has a pair of centrioles. centrosome : Structure present in the cytoplasm of animal cells, important during cell division; functions as a microtubule-organizing center. A centrosome has two centrioles. chloroplast : An organelle found in plants and photosynthetic protists that absorbs sunlight and uses it to drive the synthesis of organic compounds from carbon dioxide and water. chromatin : The complex of DNA and proteins that makes up a eukaryotic chromosome. When the cell is not dividing, chromatin exists in its dispersed form, as a mass of very long, thin fibers that are not visible with a light microscope. chromosome : A cellular structure carrying genetic material, found in the nucleus of eukaryotic cells. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins. (A bacterial chromosome usually consists of a single circular DNA molecule and associated proteins. It is found in the nucleoid region, which is not membrane bounded.) cilium : A short cellular appendage containing microtubules. A motile cilium is specialized for locomotion and is formed from a core of nine outer doublet microtubules and two inner single microtubules (the “9 + 2” arrangement) ensheathed in an extension of the plasma membrane. A primary cilium is usually nonmotile and plays a sensory and signaling role; it lacks the two inner microtubules (the “9 + 0” arrangement).
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collagen : A glycoprotein in the extracellular matrix of animal cells that forms strong fibers, found extensively in connective tissue and bone; the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom. contractile vacuole : A membranous sac that helps move excess water out of certain freshwater protists. crista
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Chapter 6 Vocabulary - Chapter 6 Vocabulary actin: A...

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