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FUNCTIONS PEMDAS Parentheses first, then Exponents , then Multiplication and Division (left to right), and lastly Addition and Subtraction (left to right). Median and Mode The median is the value that falls in the middle of the set . The mode is the value that appears most often . Counting the Possibilities If there are m ways one event can happen and n ways a second event can happen, then there are m × n ways for the 2 events to happen. ESSENTIAL FORMULAS Average Rate Formula Average Formula Average A per B = Average = Average Speed = Probability Formula Probability = Percent Formula Part = Percent × Whole Multiplying and Dividing Powers To multiply powers with the same base, add the exponents and keep the same base . To divide powers with the same base, subtract the exponents and keep the same base . Raising Powers to Powers To raise a power to a power, multiply the exponents . Negative Exponent and Rational Exponent x –n = x = Ï n x w Direct and Inverse Variation In direct variation, y = kx , where k is a nonzero constant. In inverse variation, xy = k , where k is a constant. Domain and Range of a Function The domain of a function is the set of values for which the function is defined. Determining Absolute Value The absolute value of a number is the distance of the number from zero on the number line. Multiplying Binomials—FOIL To multiply binomials, use FOIL . First multiply the F irst terms. Next the O uter terms. Then the I nner terms. And finally the L ast terms. Then add and combine like terms. Factoring the Difference of Squares a 2 b 2 = ( a b )( a + b ) Factoring the Square of a Binomial a 2 + 2 ab + b 2 = ( a + b ) 2 a 2 – 2 ab + b 2 = ( a b ) 2 Quadratic Equation ax 2 + bx + c =0 Finding the Distance Between Two Points d = Ï ( x 1 w x 2 ) 2 + w ( y 1 w y 2 ) 2 w Solving an Inequality When you multiply or divide both sides by a negative number , you must reverse the sign . Using Two Points to Find the Slope Slope = = Using an Equation to Find the Slope (slope-intercept) y = mx + b Finding the Midpoint If the endpoints are ( x 1 , y 1 ) and ( x 2 , y 2 ), the midpoint is: 1 , 2 Intersecting Lines When two lines intersect, adjacent angles are supplementary and vertical angles are equal .
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2010 for the course ECON 345 taught by Professor Sumaila during the Fall '09 term at The University of British Columbia.

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