gpu08_v1 - What we will cover Contour Tracking Surface...

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1 What we will cover Contour Tracking Surface Rendering Direct Volume Rendering Isosurface Rendering Optimizing DVR Pre-Integrated DVR Unstructured Volume Rendering GPU-based Volume Rendering Ray Casting Idea How we do parallelize ray casting and traversal of all view rays!!
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2 Texture Mapping 2D image 2D polygon + Textured-mapped polygon How does a texture work? Texture R G B A For each fragment: interpolate the texture coordinates Texture-Lookup: interpolate the texture color
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3 Texture based volume rendering 1. Render every slice in the volume as a texture- mapped polygon 2. The proxy polygon will sample the volume data 3. The polygons are blended from back to front Proxy Geometry (Polygonal Slices) 2D Textures Axis-aligned slices Bilinear Interpolation in Hardware 3 copies of the data set in memory Reorganize the textures on the fly is too time consuming. We want to prepare the texture sets beforehand xz slices yz slices xy slices
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4 2D Textures: Drawbacks Bilinear instead of trilinear interpolation 2D Textures: Drawbacks d d ´ ≠ d Inconsistent sampling rate Emission/Absorbtion incorrect Supersampling not possible!
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5 2D Textures: Drawbacks Popping effect: There is a sudden change of slicing direction when the view vector transits from one major direction to another The change in the image intensity can be quite visible 3D Texture Trilinear interpolation in hardware Slices are parallel to image plane Volume is one texture block in memory
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6 3D Texture: Advantages d d Consistent sampling rate (except for perspective projection) Supersampling by increasing the number of slices Volume Rendering Texture-mapping Ray Casting How we do parallelize!!
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7 Graphics Hardware Graphics hardware is used on most PCs now Dedicated hardware 2D and 3D graphics processing unit (GPU) nVIDIA: GeForce series (latest: GeForce 280) ATI:Radeon series (latest: Radeon HD4870) Input: Triangle list, textures, etc. Output: Pixels in the frame buffer Programmable pixel, vertex, video engines Graphics Hardware CPUs are optimized for high performance on sequential code Branch prediction, out-of-order execution GPUs are optimized for highly data-parallel nature of graphics computation Highly Parallel processing 64~320 Stream processors High level language DirectX 10 / 11 OpenGL 2.0 /2.1
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8 GPU in modern PCs AGP bus 1x/2x/4x/8x 2.1 GB bandwidth with AGP 8x Motherboard should support the expected speed PCI Express 2x/4x/8x/16x 2*4 GB bandwidth for 16x PCI Express 2.0 : twice the bandwidth AGP/PCI Express Bus
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9 GPUs are getting faster CPUs: annual growth 1.5 × decade growth : 60 × GPUs: annual growth > 2.0 × decade growth > 1000 Computational Power GPUs are fast dual-core 3.7 GHz Intel Pentium Extreme Edition 965
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2010 for the course CSE 4190.410 taught by Professor Shinyeonggil during the Spring '09 term at Seoul National.

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gpu08_v1 - What we will cover Contour Tracking Surface...

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