Chap32--Atoms - Chap. 32: The Atom Introduction The 20th...

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Chap. 32:  The Atom
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Introduction The 20th century was the century of the  atom: man harnessed the “power of the  atom”, made atomic bombs, and generated  electricity by nuclear power. He even split  the atom into smaller pieces called  subatomic particles. But what exactly is an atom? What is it made  of? What does it look like?  
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3 The Search for  Basic  Constituents The idea of an atom came from ancient Greek  science/philosophy The idea of the atom was first proposed by  Democritus (530 B.C.) An  atom  is the  indivisible  part of matter. 
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The scientific discovery of the atom was the  results of 18th and 19th century chemistry: In 1808, John Dalton (an English schoolteacher  and scientist) proposed the modern atomic theory,  which simply stated that:   Every element is made of atoms.  All atoms of any element are the same.  Atoms of different elements are different (size,  properties).  Atoms of different elements can combine to form  compounds (molecules).  In chemical reactions, atoms are not made,  destroyed, or changed.  In any compound, the numbers and kinds of atoms  remain the same.
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Discovering Atoms’ properties Amadeo Avogadro (Italian chemist) figured out a  way to “weigh” atoms: working with gases  (nitrogen, hydrogen, oxygen), he noticed that at  constant temperature and pressure, these gases  combined in definite volume ratios; for example:
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2010 for the course PHYS 100 taught by Professor Nidhalguessoum during the Spring '10 term at American University of Sharjah.

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Chap32--Atoms - Chap. 32: The Atom Introduction The 20th...

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