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Answers #1 Step 1 = Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the population. Step 2 = Determine the characteristics of the sampling distribution. Step 3 = Determine the cut-off sample score on the sampling distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected. Step 4 = Determine your sample’s score on the sampling distribution. Step 5 = Decide whether to reject the null hypothesis. #2 In science you can never prove something. Your results can only add support to your research hypothesis. Decisions are based on probabilities and there is always a possibility of error; decision errors (Type I and Type II). #3 (1) a- Population 1: people given special instructions. Population 2: people who are given NO instructions. b- The speed of solving the problem will be different for the 2 groups. c- There will be no difference between the 2 groups. d- 2-tailed test because the direction of change is not predicted.

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