Psyc_315_-_Winter_2010_-_Class_14

Psyc_315_-_Winter_2010_-_Class_14 - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Hypothesis testing and 1-tailed vs. 2-tailed tests Chapter 17 2 Scientific Method Observe natural phenomena Formulate Hypothesis Test hypothesis via rigorous experiment Modify Hypothesis Establish theory based on repeated validation of results 3 Inferential Statistics Involves making inferences about populations based on information in samples (as compared to descriptive statistics, which merely summarize known data). Used to draw conclusions about the world in general (i.e., population) based on results obtained from a particular experiment or study (i.e., sample). 2 main purposes of inferential statistics hypothesis Testing Parameter Estimation
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4 Hypothesis Testing Hypothesis Testing : A systematic procedure for deciding whether the results of a research study, which examines a particular subgroup of the population, supports a particular theory which applies to the population. Hypothesis Experiment Results Accept or Reject the Hypothesis Hypothesis Testing Inferential Statistics 5 Core Logic Of Hypothesis Testing We are testing the notion that the experimental manipulation makes no difference…. why? If the notion of no difference can be rejected, this supports the idea that the experimental manipulation does make a difference. 6 Core Logic Of Hypothesis Testing Null Hypothesis (H 0 ): – Assumed to be true and formally tested (innocent until proven guilty). – Opposite to the research hypothesis. – Usually assumes that manipulation causes no change (null event). – Determines the sampling distribution to be used (usually 95%) – Hypothesis about which decision to “reject” or “retain” is made.
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7 Core Logic Of Hypothesis Testing Research Hypothesis (H 1 ): – Alternative population condition that is “supported” or “asserted”. – Rejection of H0. – Usually reflects the underlying research question of the researcher. 8 Example: Alcohol and Pregnancy On the label of a wine bottle … “According to the surgeon general, women should not drink alcoholic beverages during pregnancy …” Reason for the warning: Maternal alcohol consumption
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