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Psyc_315_-_Winter_2010_-_Class_15

# Psyc_315_-_Winter_2010_-_Class_15 - Z-Test Summary 5 Steps...

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Z-Test 2 Summary: 5 Steps of Hypothesis Testing 1) Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations. 2) Determine the characteristics of the sampling distribution. 3) Determine the level of significance ( α ), and therefore the cutoff sample mean on the sampling distribution at which the null hypothesis should be rejected. 4) Convert your sample mean using the Z test. 5) Decide whether to reject or retain the null hypothesis . 3 5 Steps of Hypothesis Testing: Step 1 Step 1: Restate the question as a research hypothesis and a null hypothesis about the populations. Population 1 (our Sample): Individuals suffering from severe anxiety who receive relaxation training. Population 2: Individuals suffering from severe anxiety who do not receive relaxation training.

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4 Hypothesis Testing: Step 1 State Research (Alternate) Hypothesis : The sample (population 1) will differ from the original population (population 2). – Ex: severely anxious people who receive relaxation training will have lower anxiety scores than severely anxious persons who have gone untreated. – This difference is indicated with symbols as … H 1 : M < Population M State the Null hypothesis : The opposite of the research hypothesis. The sample will not differ from the population it was originally drawn from. – Ex: relaxation training will not reduce anxiety scores of individuals suffering from anxiety. – In symbols … H 0 : M Population M 5 Hypothesis Testing: Step 2 Step 2: Determine the characteristics of the sampling distribution. – Ex: What is the probability of a score being as extreme as what we measured, M = 5, when the mean score for individuals suffering from chronic anxiety is Population M = 8 with a standard error of the mean of 1.5? M = 5 Population M = 8 (mean from original population) 6 Hypothesis Testing: Step 3 Step 3: Determine the cut-off point on the sampling distribution at which the null hypothesis ought to be rejected. (a) If the sample mean exceeds this cut-off point, the probability of such an extreme mean is small enough that researchers are confident that it did not occur by chance. – Similar to saying: “The cut-off point was exceeded because there is a real difference between the sample mean and the comparison distribution.” OR … – “Due to the extremeness of the sample mean, there is little likelihood that this mean resulted from a chance selection of individuals who, to begin with, deviated so much from the sampling distribution.” – M < Population M – “Reject the null hypothesis”
7 Hypothesis Testing: Step 3 Step 3: Determine the cut-off point on the sampling

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