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geography_unit 7 - Chapter 7 North Africa Southwest Asia...

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Chapter 7: North Africa/ Southwest Asia Names often used for this area that are incorrect: Arab World o Turks, Iranians, and Israelis are not Arabs o Arabic language prevails, but is not spoken in all parts (Turkey, Iran, Israel, the Sahara, north Africa Berbers, and in the transition zone) Islamic World o Judaism – Israel o Christianity – Lebanon (25%), Egypt, Israel, Syria, and Jordan o Islam is the dominant religion in areas outside the realm (Indonesia, islands of southeast Asia, deserts of Inner Asia) Middle East – only applies to one region in the realm, not all (Iraq, Syria, Jordan, Lebanon, Israel) Ancient Culture Hearths: Mesopotamia – the land between the Tigris and Euphrates; site of several ancient civilizations; part of what is now known as Iraq Nile River Valley – the Nile River provided an endless source of fresh water, fertile soil, and food Fertile Crescent – a crescent-shaped strip of fertile land, with significant agricultural production, stretching from present-day Iraq through eastern Turkey and down the Syrian and Israeli coasts Islamic Holy Cities on the Arabian Peninsula: Medina (farther north) – Muhammad fled here after announcing Islam; site of the tomb of Muhammad Mecca (farther south) – the birthplace of Muhammad Sunni-Shiah Muslim Split: After Muhammad’s death there was disagreement about who should be his next successor: Shias – only a blood relative could follow the prophet o Wanted a cousin of Muhammad named Ali o Mostly in Iran and some in Iraq o In the late 20 th century, a king tried to secularize Iran and this provoked a revolution o 1970s – an ayatollah (leader under god) replaced the king Sunnis – any devout follower was qualified
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o First successor – father of Muhammad’s wife o Majority of Muslims, present throughout the realm Expansion/Contraction of the Ottomon Empire: Expansion – began in Anatolia and began acquiring areas, radiating outward (to Tripoli, Yemen, Oman, Transylvania and Georgia) until the 1600s Contraction – began losing all areas except present-day Turkey Oil in the Middle East Has elevated Saudi Arabia, the United Arab Emirates, Oman, Kuwait, Qatar, and Bahrain in the Persian Gulf, Kazakhstan, and Libya into the higher income categories Algeria, Egypt, Iran, Yemen, Azerbaijan, and Syria all are in lower income categories despite producing much oil Turkey, Lebanon, Israel, and Cyprus are all in higher income categories despite producing very little, or no, oil Mostly exported from the Persian Gulf o Oil tankers must pass through the Hormuz Straight ( choke point ) Suez Canal A man-made sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea Allows water transportation between Europe and Asia without navigating around Africa Forms a vital link between the Atlantic and Indian Oceans Iraq’s Three Major Ethno-Religious Groups: Arab Sunnis o 20% of population o Homeland – western and southern Iraq o
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