psych_ch11notes - nary Advances to Female Nonmonogamy ary...

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nary Advances to Female Nonmonogamy ary perspective – sexual differences evolved from ancient mating patterns that helped the species survive eater interest in sex and multiple partners sexually jealous and controlling od protector and provider es around the world believe in female nonmonogamy n partible paternity (one child having more than one biological father) vival value to women and their children re less likely to miscarry hildren with “extra” fathers lived to age 15, in contrast to 64% with only one father e approach – gender differences in sexual behavior result from the roles that men and women internalize from their society CHAPTER 11: GENDER AND HU M AN SEXUAL I T Y S EX AND G ENDER What is “Maleness” and “Femaleness”? Defining Sex and Gender Sex – biological maleness and femaleness, including chromosomal sex Gender – psychological and sociocultural meaning added to biological maleness or femaleness Gender Role Development: Two Major Theories Gender roles – societal expectation for normal and appropriate male and female behavior Our societal expectations: o Boys should be strong, independent, aggressive, dominant, and achieving o Girls should be soft, dependent, passive, emotional, and “naturally” interested in children Evolution and biology may play a role in development Social Learning Theory Social Learning Theory of Gender Role Development – gender roles are acquired through rewards, punishments, observation, and imitation Girls learn how to be “feminine” and boys learn to be “masculine” in two ways: o They receive rewards or punishments for specific gender role behaviors o They observe and imitate the behavior and attitudes of others— particularly the same sex parent Genders Schema Theory Gender Schema Theory – gender roles are acquired through social learning and active cognitive processing Children actively observe, interpret, and judge the world around them; they create rules and gender schemas (mental images) of how they should act. Gender Identity Formation Gender identity – self-identification of being either a man or a woman Transsexualism – having a gender identity opposite to biological sex Transvestism –cross-dressing, with the desire to adopt the clothes, appearance and behavior normally associated with the opposite gender Sexual orientation – primary erotic attraction toward members of the same sex, both sexes, or other sex Sex and Gender Differences: Nature versus Nurture Sex Differences Men Page | 1
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The average man is taller, heavier, and stronger than the average woman More likely to be bald and color blind Relatively steady production of sex hormones Women The corpus callosum (bridge joining the two halves of the brain) is larger than in men o Can integrate information from the two halves of the brain
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psych_ch11notes - nary Advances to Female Nonmonogamy ary...

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