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Unformatted text preview: C HAPTER 12 : MOT IVATION AND EMOT ION T H E O R I ES A N D C O N C E P TS O F M O T I VA T I O N Motivation set of factors that activate, direct, and maintain behavior; usually toward some goal Emotion subjective feeling that includes arousal (heart pounding), cognitions (thoughts, values, and expectations), and expressive behaviors (smiles, frowns, and running) B iological T heo r ies: Loo k i ng fo r I n te r n a ls Whys of Behav io r I nstinct Theory I nstinct Theory emphasizes inborn, genetic factors in motivation H umans have numerous instincts such as repulsion, curiosity, and self-assertiveness I nstinct fixed response patte rn that is unlearned and found in almost all members of a species D r ive-Reduction Theory D r ive-Reduction Theory motivation begins w i th a physiological need (a lack or deficiency) that elicits a dr ive toward behavior that w ill satisfy the original need; once the need is met, a state of balance ( homeostasis ) is restored and motivation decreases Homeostasis bodily tendency to maintain a relatively stable state, such as a constant inter nal temperatu re Arousal Theory Arousal Theory organisms are motivated to achieve and maintain an optimal level of arousal Psychosocial T heo r ies: I ncen t ives and Cogn i t ions Cognitive TheoriesExplaining Things to Ourselves Page | 1 Cognitive theories motivation is di rectly affected by att r ibutions (how we interp ret or think about our own or others actions) People who att r ibute thei r successes to personal ability and effort tend to wor k harder towa rd thei r goals than people who att r ibute thei r successes to luck B iopsychosocial T heo r y: I n te r act ion ism O nce Aga i n M aslows H iera rchy of Needs theory that lower motives (such as physiological and safety needs) must be met before advancing to higher needs (such as belonging and self-actualization) M aslow believes that we all have numerous needs that compete for fulfillment, but that some needs are more important than others: 1. Self-actualization needs: to find self-fulfillment and realize ones potential 2. Esteem needs: to achieve, be competent, gain approval, and excel 3. Belonging and love needs: to affiliate w ith others, be accepted,...
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This note was uploaded on 04/29/2010 for the course PSYC 103 taught by Professor Frangicetto during the Spring '10 term at Northampton Community College.
- Spring '10