Chapter 2 Part 1

Chapter 2 Part 1 - Chapter 2 Part 1: Frequency...

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1 Chapter 2 Part 1: Frequency Distributions
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2 Refreshing our memories… Are these data qualitative or quantitative? Years of work experience Student ID Eye color What is the level of measurement? Nominal (name), Ordinal (order), Interval, or Ratio The value for republic party is 1, and for democratic party is 2 I finished the race in 10 minutes I came in 10 th place The temperature is 54 degrees Fahrenheit
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3 Frequency Distributions Goal : to describe data in a way that is practical, coherent, concise, and complete Descriptive Statistic ‘tool’ that is used: Frequency Distribution : shows the number of observations for the possible categories or score values in a set of data Categories for qualitative data Score values for quantitative data
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4 Frequency Distributions: Why Bother? Unorganized data is difficult to interpret: just a string of observations Simply counting up the number of observations in each category would help Male Female Male Female Female Male Male Female Female Female Male Female Female Male Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Male Female Male Female Female Female Female Female Female Female Male Male
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5 Frequency Distributions for Qualitative (Nominal) Data How many observations in each category? First column is the name of each category Second column is the frequency (i.e., the count) of observations within that class f is the notation for frequency Frequency Distribution of Gender for 30 Students Gender f Male 10 Female 23 Total 33 Frequency Distribution of Home State for 30 Students State f NJ 2 NY 3 PA 24 UT 1 Total 30
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6 Frequency Distributions for Qualitative (Ordinal) Data With ordered qualitative data, the order of the categories should be preserved (e.g. list the categories in descending order) Frequency Distribution of Academic Year for 29 Students Year f Senior 8 Junior 12 Sophomore 9 Freshman 0 Total 29
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7 Frequency Distributions for Quantitative Data Two forms of frequency distributions: Ungrouped frequency distribution Each class has a single value From highest (at the top) to lowest (at the bottom), every possible value within the range of actual observations is listed consecutively Grouped frequency distribution From highest to lowest, equal groups (‘class intervals’) representing a range of values are listed
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8 Frequency Distributions for Quantitative Data Ungrouped vs. grouped scores If range of observations is small (e.g. less than 20), it’s easy to list up to 20 consecutive values individually If range of observations is large (20 or more), it’s more practical to group data into larger chunks
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9 Frequency Distributions for Quantitative Data Sample Class Data: Height & Weight for 15 students
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Chapter 2 Part 1 - Chapter 2 Part 1: Frequency...

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